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自然保全を前提とした森林レクリェーション的活用に関する研究 : 緑地環境を基盤とした計画設計論

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概要 Practical studies were conducted on the planning and design of forest recreation area to determine a method of land usage that would reconcile the preservation with the development, to set up. fundame...ntal rules for the planning and design, and to obtain methods of an efficient planning and design. This is a report on the basis and methods for the planning and design of forest recreation area, which was compiled in connection with the natural conditions of a planned site. The present report is composed of 2 parts. Part I consisting of 4 chapters is devoted to fundamental studies on the planning and design. In chapter 1, a method of preserving and cashing in on the natural area is described from the viewpoint of landscape planning and these two objectives are shown to be non-incompatible. In chapter 2 the planning and design with the green environment is discussed, and a few findings are pointed out for the backgrounds and techniques to support the planning and design. Chapter 3 deals with the methodology of basic studies according to each element in the green environment, and discusses how the methods can be applied in the planning and design. In chapter 4, opinions on the adjustment of the preservation and use of the nature in some phases of planning are discussed. Concrete concepts on how to make an inquiry on the limits to the use of the nature and on the guidelines for handling this matter are described. Part II constituted of 2 chapters gives some case studies on the forest recrea tion planning. Chapter 1 gives actual examples of zoning to grasp the characteristics of the green environment which form the basis of the planning and design of a recreation area. Chapter 2 states an example of the master plan for an actual forest recreation area, showing that the fruits of the reserch mentioned in Part I can be effectively applied in practice. The contents of this report are summarized as follows. 1) The author's theme in the landscape planning is conservation of nature and creation of a safe and pleasant recreation space. Conservation of nature is not always antagonistic to the use of it. There are 3 methods of conservation; strict preservation, processing conservation and creating conservation. An appropriate method be selected from one of these to maintain the orderliness of nature while also using it. A large space firmly set up on land having enough water, air and sunshine surrounded by a lot of plants is a most suitable recreation area. Appreciation of this orderly green environment is the very foundation for making a safe and enjoyable space. 2) The author notes that the task of landscape planning is not that of beauty versus ugliness but of pleasant versus unpleasant, and has attemped to obtain the formative foundation of his work from the orderliness of nature. The green environment can be seen as a spatial arrangement extending from the seaside to mountain summit. Such spatial arrangement can form the basis for the planning and design of a recreation area in following two ways; one is to use the natural undulation pa ttem in the layout of the site and the other is to recognize the site for the plan within this spatial arrangement. There are two ways of using the spatial arrangement in the layout of the site; one is miniaturization and the other is partial application of the spatial arrangement. The latter approach would be more appropriate for creating a recreation area in the natural environment. 3) Among the conflicting relations rooted in landscape planning such as placing man-made products and allowing for human activity in a natural setting, in practice, the method of contrast and the harmony established by operating on contrast is effective for consolidating the area. The atmosphere of a forest recreation area should be in harmony with or to emphasize the characteristics of the green environoment in which it is founded. There should be some contrasts between the characteristics of the direct surrounding green environment and the aesthetic characteristics of the area. It is possible to change the impressions made on the user by considering a contrasting relationship. 4) The operation of contrast can be done in 4 ways, concord, alleviation, transformation and dilution. For example, al1eviation of the contrast is effective in planning the transition, and transformation or dilution of the contrast is effective in determining the color. of paint to use in the natural environment. The color of paint to use on the man-made products in a natural environment is best determined by adjusting the darking and shading or tinting of fundamental, red-orange, the opponent color for green-blue that should be the basic color of the green environment in our country, considering the relations with the colors to be used together as well as the original color of material to be painted. 5) The author uses the word 'schole' for the technique of gIVIng additional lure to a area by appealing to the intellectual curiosity of the user, and he has applied this technique in the planning and design. In forest recreation areas in particular, there is an abundance of materials for 'schole' and this techchnique can be widely and effectively applied. The schole technique, the theme of which is based on the various elements of green environment, not only makes the area attractive and gives it characteristics, but also secondarily makes the planning and design easier. 6) Fundamental survey on the site should be made in a way directly connected to the planning. Theoretical standards on grading determined in relation to human activities or the construction of facilities will be suggestive to survey the topographical gradient, but the grading determined by simplicity of measurements is enough to grasp the general picture. Rarely are soil surveys directly used in the planning of a recreation area, but it is necessary to consider the application of them with reference to the growing of plants or the prevention of erosion. The vegetation is one of the most important general parameters of the environment. A physiognomical vegetation map to the same scale with the indication of the master plan and a plant list with the growth stage of the plants shown will be available as the structure for the master plan. 7) The precision of survey and expression of vegetation depend on the size of the area. A larger scale vegetation map will classify the vegetation more discretely, and the classification is often centered on differences in the naturalness of the vegetation. The pattern of the existence of vegetation and the life cycle of it are proposed as tools to measure such naturalness. Evaluation of vegetation from individual elements of naturalness was found to offer many suggestions in the method of vegetative survey as determined from the trial use in comparison to such previously used parameters as the degree of naturalness in vegetation and population density which would be a negative parameter of naturalness. 8) The author attempted to make up vegetation maps based on the volume of vegetation and the visual naturalness of vegetation, but found it difficult to use them in the planning unless standards of valuation were made clear. In order to show the naturalness of the site, the degree of naturalness proposed by the Environment Agency was found to be effective for the comparison of some large areas, and the thickness of the vegetation for the expression of the visual naturalness of the site. 9) Actual examples of mapping vegetation were given, the value of air photographs and of the combination of them with field surveys were discussed according to scale, and many findings were obtained. Vegetation maps to various scales made up for various purposes become necessary at several stages in planning; from establishing the conception to the completion of concrete planning. Valuable is, however, a method of compiling and arranging detailed information on the photographs and field surveys,続きを見る
目次 緒論 1 研究の背景と目的 2 関連する研究の動向 第Ⅰ編 計画設計に関する基礎的研究 第1章 風致工学の基盤としての緑地環境 第1節 造園と風致工学 第2節 緑地と緑地環境 第3節 計画設計のための緑地環境のとらえ方 1‐3‐1. 緑地環境の保全 1‐3‐2. 安全で快適な空間と緑地環境 第2章 計画設計への応用面からみた緑地環境 第1節 緑地環境の空間的序列と計画設計 2‐1‐1. 緑地環境の空間的序列 2‐1‐2. 緑地環境の序列の応用 第2節 緑地環境との対比効果を考慮した計画設計 2‐2‐1. 対比を原点とする調和とその効果 2‐2‐2. 森林レクリェーション計画における対比効果の応用 2‐2‐3. 設計のための対比の操作と応用 第3節 スコーレの素材としての緑地環境 2‐3‐1. スコーレの意義とテーマ 2‐3‐2. スコーレ的手法の応用 第3章 緑地環境の要素とその調査 第1節 計画のための緑地環境の調査 第2節 地形および植生の調査に関する2,3の考察 3‐2‐1. 地形傾斜度の分級 3‐2‐2. 植生の調査,表現の精度 3‐2‐3. 植生調査における自然性のとらえ方 3‐2‐4. 植生図の作製 第3節 設計資料のための調査と応用 3‐3‐1. 湛水面の形 3‐3‐2. 樹木群の配植 第4章 計画における保全と活用の調整処理 第1節 保全と活用の調整処理の考え方 4‐1‐1. 計画における保全と活用 4‐1‐2. 保全と活用の調整の考え方 第2節 自然保全とレクリェーション利用のための土地利用計画の事例 4‐2‐1. 土地の性質の把握 4‐2‐2. 土地の類型化と土地利用区分 4‐2‐3. 土地利用区分と保全・活用の指針 第Ⅱ編 森林レクリェーション計画に関する事例的研究 第1章 熊本県における事例研究のための基礎的検討 第1節 基盤となる緑地環境の検討 1‐1‐1. 既存の資料類 1‐1‐2. 植生の自然性を中心とした県域の緑地環境特性 1‐1‐3. 地域区分と評価値のパタン 第2節 誘致圏と対応した地域区分 1‐2‐1. 地域区分のグルーピング 1‐2‐2. 事例研究対象地の緑地環境特性 第2章 菊池森林レクリェーションエリア基本計画 第1節 計画の概要と構想 第2節 基礎調査 2‐2‐1. 地形と水系 2‐2‐2. 土壌 2‐2‐3. 植生 第3節 基礎調査資料による類地区分 2‐3‐1. 類地区分の意義と用いた基礎調査資料 2‐3‐2. 土地の性質の類型化 2‐3‐3. 各区分の性質と保全・活用の指針 第4節 基本計画の概要 2‐4‐1. 利用拠点と動線 2‐4‐2. 基本計画図と各区域の概要 2‐4‐3. 施設の概要 総括 謝辞 引用文献

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