The objective of this study is evaluating the effect of the land use condition on the ecological system in the rural area. The field observation was conducted in a 600 ha study site, which is located on the left bank of the Chikugo River in Kyushu Island, Japan. The living thing and ecosystem were investigated in a paddy field, rotated field, and ponded fallow field located in the study site. In the ponded fallow field, many kinds of the living things, including the primary and secondary consumers, can be observed, comparing with in the rotated field, and the food pyramid is formed. The surface temperatures at the study fields were observed using an infrared thermal imaging camera. The relationship between the thermal environment and ecosystem was clarified. The result indicates that the water management affects the ecosystem in the rural area.