20世紀初頭イギリスにおける優生思想の展開と親役割 : 優生教育協会の活動に着目して
|概要||This paper clarifies the process which the logic of parental roles was formed when eugenics was spreading in England in the early 20th century.
There was a decline in the “quality” of the people, such ...as a decline in the birth rate and physical weakness of children in England in the early 20th century. As the “deterioration of quality” of the people became a problem, the nation focused on children who would become citizens in the future. Along with this movement, “the Science of Childhood” occurred in England at that time, which tried to measure children and build systematic knowledge about childhood. Eugenics, which is the subject of this paper, is one of the “sciences” developed in England at the same time as “the Science of Childhood”. In England, the Eugenics Education Society was established in 1907, and was active in enlightenment movements and political activities. In this paper, I focused on the strategy of the Eugenics Education Society when eugenics began to develop in England, especially the logic when the society tried to convince the public about how to “well-bearing” and “well-raising”.
From the analysis of this paper, the following became clear. First, it became clear that the society aimed at “dissemination of eugenic knowledge,” “guidance,” and “establishment of parental responsibility.” Also, from the analysis of the Eugenics Review, it became clear that the society aimed to establish a sense of responsibility for parents by spreading eugenic knowledge about marriage and parents.
In England at the beginning of the 20th century, in the field of eugenics, it was said that the way parents should be, such as marriage and heredity, will determine the future of their children. In trying to justify the parental role for the child by “eugenic knowledge”, what was used was invisible and immeasurable, such as “parental instinct” and “experience.” The activities of the Eugenics Education Society not only aimed to expand eugenics, but also stipulated that it is the parents who influence the growth of children with the power of eugenics.続きを見る
１．優生教育協会（Eugenics Education Society）
２．機関誌『優生評論（the Eugenics Review）』の創刊