<紀要論文>
国家仏教の成立過程

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概要 The introduction of Buddhism into Japan in the sixth century A. D. suddenly increased the antagonism between the Soga family (蘇我氏) who accepted Buddhism and the Mononobe family (物部氏) who rejected it. ...While these two powerful clans were feuding with each other, the Emperor Kinmei (510-570) took a neutral attitude to Buddhism, because he wished to keep out of such conflicts. When the Emperor Yomei (540-587) fell ill and wanted to embrace Buddha to beg for his recovery, the hostility between the advocates of Buddhism and the opponents exploded and the Mononobe family was overthrown by the Soga family in 587 A. D. It was natural that the Soga family took the initiative for the expansion of Buddhism in Japan after that. Then the Soga family built a family temple named Hokoji temple on a large scale in Asuka and other clans erected their own temples following the Hokoji temple. The Hokoji temple symbolized the superior power and the enormous wealth owned by the Soga family. But the Emperor and Empress had no temple of their own, though each clan built their own temples at that time. The Empress Suiko (554-628) appointed prince Shotoku (574-622) to the regency in expectation of the regulation for the official relation between the State and Buddhism. But after the death of Shotoku, the Empress Suiko set about controlling the temples and priests by the government officials instead of building her own temple. The Kudaraji temple which was built by the Emperor Jomei (593-641) was the first royal temple in Japan. At last Buddhism was accepted in the Imperial Court. Several scholar-priests, who had studied Buddhism and the advanced culture in T'ang dynasty for many years, returned to Japan one after another. They rendered great services for the mission work of Buddhism to the Court. The Soga family was overthrown in 645 A. D. and the Innovation government could secure the leadership for Buddhism This "family Buddhism" developed into "the state Buddhism" in the age of the Empress Saimei (594-661). At that time Japanese troops had been dispatched to Korea to rescue Paekche, but suffered a heavy defeat from the Allies of T'ang and Silla. The Empress Saimei asked for the religious defense by the magical power of Buddha in the face of the national crisis of the foreign threat. The Shitennoji temple, I suppose, was founded in Naniwa for the purpose of praying to protect Japan in those days. But the State Buddhism corresponds with the Ritsuryo (律令) system which was consolidated by the Emperor Tenmu (631-686), because the State Buddhism was expected to safeguard the Emperor and his Ritsuryo state, as well as the family Buddhism to guard each family, by the power of Buddha. The Daikandaiji temple was the first government temple which carried out its mission to protect and support the State, and the State Buddhism was completed by the successors of the Emperor Tenmu in the Nara period with his Daikandaiji (later Daianji) temple at its top.続きを見る
目次 はじめに
一 傍観的中立の段階 : 欽明・敏達・崇峻天皇
二 「私的」受容の段階 : 用明天皇
三 「公的」接触の段階 : 仏教統制の発端 : 推古天皇
四 「私的」接触の段階 : 宮廷仏教の成立 : 舒明・皇極天皇
五 「私的」受容から「公的」受容へ : 宮廷仏教の展開 : 孝徳・天智天皇
六 「国家的」受容の段階 : 対外的危機と仏教 : 斉明天皇
七 「国家仏教」の成立 : 律令国家と仏教 : 天武天皇
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登録日 2019.07.17
更新日 2020.09.28

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