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Systematic and biological studies on the genus Aphytis Howard (Hymenoptera, Aphelinidae) of Japan Part 2. Biology and mass production

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概要 Taxonomy of the Aphytis spp. of Japan including two new species. Aphytis yassumatsui and Aphytis debachi is discussed in this paper, specially their number of crenulae on the posteriur margin of the p...ropodeum, number of nodules along the submarginal vein, and setae on the mesoscutum and at the delta basad of the speculum of the forewings. These species are very small in size about 1 mm in body length. The general colour of the body is yellow, except diaspidis which is gusky and sides of the abdomen with brownish bands. Generally the ovipositor of this genus is exerted. Generally the forewings are without any infuscation of clouds, except some species. Aphytis diaspidis is the only species whose forewings are clearly infuscated beneath the stigma and at the junction of the marginal and submarginal veins, the wings of Aphytis chrysomphali is with a faint dark cloud beneath the stigma and a more distinct cloud more or less across the disc beneath the union of the marginal and submarginal veins; the forewings of Aphytis debachi is slightly infuscated beneath the junction of marginal and submarginal veins. Setae are also present on the head of a ll the species of this genus. The biology of the genus Aphytis Howard is broadly same in all the species. The duration of the various stages in the life cycle varies according to the temperatures and humidities. Generally the life cycle of these species is about 15 to 18 days, incubation period is 3 to 5 days, larval period is 5 to 10 days, prepupa l period is 1 to 1 days, and the pupal period is 5 to 10 days. The oviposition behavior is almost same in all the species. Generally they deposit eggs on the ventral surface of the scale body which is covered by scale covering. But Aphytis cylindratus deposits egg on the dorsal surface of the scale body, just under the scale covering. The first larva is formed inside the egg, and the tracheal system is clearly visible prior to eclosion. The colour of the larva is generally white, with a slight yellowish tinge in the middle. The mandibles of the newly formed larva measures about 0.01 mm in length and that of full grown larva are about 0.02 mm in length. The prepupa is always accompanying with six to ten or twelve black or dark brown torpedolike bodies which are evacuations from the digestive tract and are expelled by the larva prior to prepupation. These bodies (meconia) are observed under the scale covering even after the emergence of the parasite. The pupae are generally yellow in colour, but in some species the pupae are pigmented on mid thoracic sterna, wing pads, antennae and appendages. The pupal pigmentation is now the most important factor to study the taxonomy of this genus, and this is clearly discussed in this paper. Mass propagation of the parasites and their host are essential for the control of the scale pest. Squash, potato and cucumber are used for the mass-culture of the host scales, but the squash is found to be the most suitable for the mass-culture of the host scales. It is easy to handle and has better length of life. The mass propagation of Pseudaonidia duplex, Chrysonphalus bifasciculatus, Aspidiotus perniciosus and Pseudaulacaspis pentagona and their parasites of Aphytis genus are studied. The parasites are successfully produced on their host scales developed and reproduced on squash. It takes about 40 to 60 days to produce the host scales on squash. The parasites are reared from the respective host scales on squash, and they take 15 to 20 days to emerge after the deposition of the eggs. These parasites are economically too important for the control of scale insect pests of economic plants. So far as known these parasites are the most important primary parasites of diaspidine scales. It is not yet known that there is any second parasites of these Aphytis species. These parasites are more effective than other Encyrtid and Aphelinid parasites due to short life cycle and can be produced throughout the year.続きを見る

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登録日 2012.07.20
更新日 2021.02.05

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