地域経済の構造転換と「場所に関する戦略的経営」 : オーストリア・フォラールベルク州の事例
|概要||Most of scholars think that it is metropolitan areas that can grow and develop in an economic sense and it may be difficult for rural regions to develop in the era of globalization, if they are locate...d far away from metropolitan areas. However, in middle Europe, there are some rural regions which have successfully developed, although they are located neither within nor near to any metropolitan area. Vorarlberg, a federal Land of Austria, is one of the typical cases. This region was characterized with monoculture of the textile and clothing industry until the 1970s. It faced decline of this industry in the beginning of the 1980s. It could, however, overcome the crisis of its regional economy and has developed dynamically since the 1990s. Vorarlberg’s industrial structure is now balanced very well.
The purpose of this article is to explain the reason of this successful change of industrial structure, focusing on the Standortpolitik or “strategic management of place” by the Land government. The method of this research is reading and interpretation of important documents as well as of interviews with local actors including entrepreneurs.
Under the principles of the ecological social market economy and the subsidiarity, the Land government has implemented education policy integrated with economic policy. It has continued to upgrade vocational education from the 1960s through the 1990s under the Land prime ministers Herbert Keßler and his successor Martin Purtscher, alongside the construction of physical infrastructure such as transportation, power generation and so forth. The facilities and education programs of the HTL (Höhere Technische Bundeslehr- und Versuchsanstalten: Higher Technical Federal Training and Research Institutes) have been modernized through the support of both the local manufacturing companies and the Land government as well as of municipalities concerned. Polytechnic Vorarlberg was established at the end of the 1980s and this has developed to the University of Applied Sciences. The Land government has also encouraged the entrepreneurship among SMEs and individuals by means of establishment of risk capital, an incubation facility, an office for the transfer of information and knowledge created by renowned universities and research institutes, and creation of the Vorarlberg’s innovation prize with the collaboration of the Chamber of Economy. Because most of economic innovations have been realized by private companies, the present author will study further in detail of the eternal vitality of Vorarlberg’s economy from the viewpoint of the relation between entrepreneurship and local environment.続きを見る