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ボスニアにおける教育と民族共存・融和についての考察 : 紛争終結11年後の模索

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概要 11 years passed since Bosnia and Herzegovina (hereafter BiH) experienced a disastrous war fought along the ethnic lines. With the passage of time and aspiration to join EU for a better future, there s...tarted some educational attempts in BiH to promote the spirit of coexistence among children and young people. The author discusses the potentials as well as shortcomings of such initiatives based on a recent field visit. There are two initiatives this paper focuses on: formal civics education and non-formal education promoting inter-ethnic cohesion. These two types of education are different in their aims and modes of operation. Civics education is conducted at schools (often divided according to ethnicity), and aims to instill in learners' minds respect for democratic principles such as human rights, equality and tolerance, while non-formal education is conducted by Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs) inviting children of different ethnicities, and aims to create trust relationship among them through interactive games and sports. The author found from a sample survey in the Tuzla canton that there seemed correlation between civic education and attitudes of children towards coexistence, though few children were offering concrete civic principles as keys to achieving coexistence. Classroom observation reveals that civic education utilizes untraditional and participatory approach in classroom teaching, but students seem less receptive when dealing with the question of ethnic relationship. Meanwhile, a non-formal education conducted by a local NGO deliberately avoids dealing with the question of ethnicity in their activities, much like in the period of socialist Yugoslavia, and promotes a sense of "sameness" among children. This approach may be effective in areas where ethnic consciousness is not acute, but may not be in other areas. The research findings suggest that civics education needs further improvement in delivering its essence, while non-formal education requires flexibility in adopting an approach according to the specificity of region where they operate. Considering that the schools are often perceived to be symbols as well as means of coexistence and ethnic divide, education should be a focus of post-war reconstruction effort. Civics education at schools and non-formal education are complimentary: civics education is a backbone of building a democratic society while non-formal education facilitates interaction between different ethnic groups, both of which are important in forming human and social capital in promoting peace and development.続きを見る

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登録日 2012.11.19
更新日 2021.03.03

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