||After the birth of the socalled redhead-style surgery 'kasuparu-ryu geka' during the 1650s a growing interest of Japanese physicians and feudal lords in Western drugs, herbs, instruments and treatment... methods can be observed. As texts and their terminology were not accessible yet even to Japanese interpreters, the instructions given in the VOC trading post Dejima played a key role in conveying European knowledge to Japan. For about three decades certificates issued by the surgeons of the Dutch East India Company turned out to be useful when pursuing a career as a 'redhead-style physician'. This social breakthrough goes back to 1657, when Hatano Gentaro who was leaving for Edo, asked for a certificate to prove that he had been educated by a Dutch surgeon. Especially during the latter half of the 1660s several such certificates were issued. Then in 1673, the central government appointed Nishi Genpo, a veteran interpreter who had received an extraordinarily detailed and euphemistic surgical certificate in 1668, as Portuguese interpreter and Western-style surgeon at the court in Edo. By this time, doctors in all regions had set up their own 'redhead-style' schools, and granted certificates to qualified pupils in their own right. Although the instructions at Dejima never reached the intensity and the range of an education in European guilds the 'diploma' were accepted throughout Japan. Five of them have survived the ravages of time. With the exception of Nishiâs extensive certificate they consist of a short Dutch text signed by the company surgeon together with a more or less lengthy Japanese explanation composed and signed by half a dozen high-ranking Japanese interpreters. Four of the five beneficiaries whose names are given in these certificates are well known. An investigation in Northern Kyushu and Shikoku brought to light historical records that clarify the hitherto unknown identity of the fifth one, Otaguro Gentan. Gentan was the second son of Otaguro Kozaemon, a village headman in the province of Chikugo. With no prospects to succeed his father he went to serve in the residence of Kuze Hiroyuki in Edo. As a remark in the Dejima diary of 1667 shows, this powerful imperial councillor suggested an education in Western surgery at the trading post in Nagasaki. The instructions given by Arnold Dircksz ended in October 1668 when Dircksz issued a certificate. Especially the Japanese appendix of this certificate resembles the one appended to the certificate given to Seo ShÃ´taku by Dircksz in spring of the same year. After his 'graduation' Otaguro went to Edo again where he was employed by Hachisuga Tsunamichi (1656-1678), the young ruler of Awa. Then or afterwards Otaguro changed his name to Mizogami, and for generations the sons of the Mizogami-family served as physicians to the Hachisugas until the 19th century. Gentan, the founder of this tradition was treated with great generosity by Tsunamichi and his successor Tsunanori (1661-1730), proving the high esteem he enjoyed. In 1694 he was even granted to use Tsunanori's personal ship (sekibune) to travel to Nagasaki for further medical studies. But soon Gentan fell ill and after a brief visit to the village of his ancestors he died at the end of that same year. The newly found sources do not only clarify the background of Otaguro Gentan and the issue of his certificate, they also open the door for a new investigation of the history of Western medicine in the domain of Awa which is shown to have started already in the 17th century.
一六五〇年代後半から約三〇年間にわたり出島蘭館医が交付していた外科免許状に関して蘭館側と日本側の評価は異なっていたが, その免許状は, 初期紅毛流外科を追究する上で極めて重要な史料である。現存するもののうちこれまでその背景が明らかにされていなかった免許状の取得者太田黒玄淡(元禄七年没)は筑後国中折地村の大庄屋太田黒小左衛門の次男だった。玄淡は江戸で老中 久世広之に仕えてから, 出向商船で外科術を学び寛文八(一六六八)年に免許状を受けた。再ぴ江戸へ戻った玄淡は, 阿波藩の五代藩主蜂須賀嗣過に召し抱えられ, 溝上玄淡として六代藩主嗣矩からも高い訴価を受けながら, 徳島で幕末まで続く医家の基盤を築き上げた。show more