We obtained three different types of samples from the central Arctic Ocean during the IODP Arctic Coring Expedition (ACEX) 302, which took place during summer 2004: they are (1) sea water, (2) sea-ice, and (3) diatom mat samples. A total of 227 specimens of pollen and spores as well as 52 pollen fragments were found in the samples. Dominant pollen taxa are vesiculate: Pinus (pines, “Matsu” in Japanese), Picea (spruce, “Touhi” in Japanese) and Abies (fir, “Momi” in Japanese). Porate pollen and monolete spores were also found, but their populations were very small. Most of the pollen grains encountered were from the sea water sample type, whereas in sea-ice or diatom mat samples pollen grains were very rare. It is most likely that these pollen grains were transported via the Arctic Current rather than via atmospheric pathways, such as the geostrophic wind.