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Scientific protocols for forensic examination of clothing

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概要 From the Publisher: When a crime or other incident takes place, clothing items are often present or left behind, and can become directly involved in the case itself. Items of clothing are thus one of... the most common types of exhibit examined in court. They can provide valuable information in cases of violent crimes, such as homicide or rape, as well as in burglary, robbery, arson, and vehicular accidents. A unique reference in the forensic arena, The first of its kind, Scientific Protocols for Forensic Examination of Clothing discusses the forensic examination of clothing in criminal cases. It examines the ramifications of DNA profiling and its effect on the screening approach to clothing examination. Coverage includes protocols and procedures, preliminary assessment, examination, testing and sampling, quality assurance and control, and the significance of results.続きを見る
目次 Preface
Acknowledgements
About the authors
1: Protocols, Procedures, and Philosophy
1-1: Importance of clothing examination
1-2: Clothing a "Crime Scene"
1-3: Multiple hypotheses, alternative explanations
1-4: Origin of evidence
1-5: Searching for evidence and the screening effect
1-6: Checklists, guidelines, and protocols
1-7: Nonprescriptive holistic approach
1-8: References
2: Preliminary Inquiries
2-1: Focus of the examination
2-2: Information concerning the crime
2-3; Levels of information
Description vs identification
Data, results, conclusions, interpretations
Stability of information
2-4: History of exhibit
2-5: Reference and control samples
2-6: Preservation, handling, and storage
2-7: Contamination issues
2-8: Health and safety
2-9: References
3: Preliminary Assessment
3-1: Documentation
3-2: Detection
3-3: Recovery
3-4: Clothing construction
3-5: Yarn and fabric composition
3-6: Yarns or threads
3-7: Fabric
Weave
Knit
Felts, leather, and other non-wovens
3-8: Definitions
3-9: Sewing terminology
3-10: Clothing construction terminology
3-11: References
4: Stains And Deposits
4-1: Introduction
4-2: Information from preliminary examination
Overview
Class of material
Appearance of deposit
Manner of deposit
Sequence of deposit and time of deposit
Deposit from the outside or the inside surface
Direct or indirect transfer
Alteration
Wear
Alteration from immersion in water and alteration from burning
Alteration from the examination
Relationship to other stains, deposits, or damage
4-3: Getting started: workflow for examination of stains and deposits
Examining individual stains and deposits
Smears and directional contact deposits
Projected stains and deposits-spatters, scatters, and splashes
Grouped stains, deposits, and damage
Comparing stains and deposits on different items
4-4: Sampling of stains and deposits
Basis for sampling
Preliminary sampling
Crusts and films
Caked deposits and heterogeneous agglomerates
Powdery deposits
Stains
Viscous deposits
4-5: Questions that can be addressed by stains and deposits
4-6: Sorting tools for stains and deposits
Sorting tools for preliminary evaluation
Sorting tools for examining samples received from another examiner
4-7: Establishing a reference collection
4-8: Writing reports
4-9: Summary
4-10: Terminology for stains and deposits
Terminology for appearance
Terminology for manner of deposit
4-11: References
5: Pattern Evidence
5-1: Blood pattern analysis (BPA)
Impact blood spatter
Gunshot
Beating and stabbing
Projected blood spatter
Expirated blood
Arterial spurt
Cast-off spatter
Secondary spatter
Directionality
Clotted blood
Transfer bloodstain patterns and contact bloodstains
Altered bloodstain patterns
Limitations
BPA terminology suggested for use in clothing examination
5-2: Firearm discharge residue patterns
5-3: Direct contact impressions: imprints and indentations
Fingerprints
Footwear
Tire marks
Lipstick prints
Weapon, tool, and object marks
Fabric impressions
5-4: Physical Fit
5-5: References
6: Damage
6-1: Introduction
6-2: Damage categories
6-3: Examination approach
6-4: Normal wear and tear and "recency"
6-5: Cuts
6-6; Tears
6-7: Holes and punctures
6-8: Stabbing
6-9: Simulations
6-10: Physical fit
6-11: Glass cuts
6-12; Microbial damage
6-13: Thermal (fire and heat) damage
6-14: Firearm damage
6-15: Other textiles
6-16: Limitations
6-17: Glossary of terms
6-18: References
7: Human Biological Evidence
7-1: Blood
Testing for blood
7-2: Semen
Testing for semen
7-3: Saliva
Testing for saliva
7-4: Vaginal secretions, urine, feces, and vomit
Vaginal secretions
Urine
Feces
Vomit
7-5: Dandruff
7-6: DNA
7-7: Wearer DNA
7-8: Trace DNA
7-9: Multiple body sources
7-10: Mixtures
7-11: Nonhuman biological evidence
7-12: Conclusion
7-13: References
8: Traces And Debris
8-1: Nature of debris
8-2: Sorting tools for evaluating traces and debris
8-3: Composition of debris
Normal debris vs foreign debris
Individual types of material vs set of debris
8-4: Component vs. non-component debris
8-5: Transfers of debris Transfers of individual types of material
Paint
Glass
Hair
Fibers
Gunpowder particles
Soil and sand
Pollen, spores, wood, and other plant parts
Insects and insect parts
Cosmetics and glitter
Foam rubber and plastics
Lubricants from condoms, contraceptive creams, and related materials
Soot and other black smudges
Beads and spheres from welding, soldering, burning, and incineration
Materials from evidence packaging
Transfer via direct or indirect contact
Transfer, persistence, and detection
Problem of detection
Evaluating transfer and persistence
8-6: Questions that can be addressed by examinations of traces and debris
8-7: Questions of contact
8-8: Target vs context-based examinations
8-9: Absence of debris
8-10: Summary: Nature, composition, source, and transfers of traces and debris
8-11: Sampling and sorting
Sampling rationale
Sampling criteria
Sequence of sampling and collection
Techniques for sampling and collection
Sample size and composition
Sampling and sorting techniques
Special problems in sample collection
Collecting samples for target examinations
8-12: Reference samples and reference standards
Reference samples
Reference standards
Primary and secondary reference samples
8-13: Reconstruction of events
8-14: Process-based descriptive terminology for traces and debris
8-15; Trace evidence recovery guidelines
8-16: References
9: Results And Their Significance
9-1: Significance of the evidence
9-2: Expectations 9-3: Context of evidence obtained from clothing
9-4: Objectivity and opinion
9-5: Adversarial system and the law
9-6: Interpretation and communication of the evidence 9-7: Peer, technical, and administrative reviews
9-8: Training and maintaining the expertise of the clothing examiner
9-9: References
Appendix 1
Appendix 2
Appendix 3
Appendix 4
Index.
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アクセス注記 Taylor & Francis eBooks DRM Free Collection トライアル中(2023/3/31まで利用可能) 【Trial】This title is available until March 31, 2023.
本文を見る Taylor & Francis eBooks DRM Free Collection: 2010

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登録日 2023.01.20
更新日 2023.01.20