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Mixed Crystals

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概要 The two-word title of this book can only give an indication about its content and approach to the subject it deals with. In the course of time, the term has gradually become somewhat blurred. The reas...on is easy to see: similar problems are now more and more frequently studied by different branches of natural science. The term "mixed crystals" has acquired specific connotations in physics, chemistry, biology, and geology. One and the same term can now serve as a name for things which are either not quite the same or sometimes quite different. And this is precisely what happened to the two words in the title of the book. One of them, the term "crystal", for which crystallography had an un ambiguous definition, is now employed by biologists to describe the structure of cell membranes and by chemists who use it to denote degrees of polymer crystallinity. "Crystal" has thus become a broad term that can help describe any solid, or just a condensed state of a substance, if the solid has a suf ficient degree of order in the arrangement of its components. But the book is called "~lixed Crystals". The other word in its title, the adjective "mixed", has also developed several meanings. It is now thought ap plicable to both homogeneous and heterogeneous systems, that is, to crystals composed of different molecules and also to solids that are a mixture of crys tals with different structures.続きを見る
目次 1. Introduction
1.1 The Early History
1.2 Developments of the Twentieth Century
1.3 Outline of the Book
2. Phase Diagrams
2.1 Fundamentals
2.2 Conditions of Stability in Mixed Crystals
2.3 Types of Phase Diagrams
2.4 Determination of Phase Diagrams
3. Particle Packing in a Crystal
3.1 Elements of the Theory of Space Lattices
3.2 Geometric Model
3.3 Structure of Single-Phase Mixed Crystals
4. Free Energy of a Solid Solution
4.1 General Formula for the Free Energy
4.2 Solid Solution Characterized by One Interaction Parameter
4.3 Limited Solubility
4.4 Permutation of Particles in a Rigid Lattice
4.5 Lattice Distortions
4.6 Thermal Vibrations
5. Heterophase Systems
5.1 Eutectic Crystallization
5.2 Decomposition of Solid Solutions
6. X-Ray Scattering
6.1 X-Ray Scattering by a Single Crystal
6.2 Scattering by One- and Two-Dimensional Systems
6.3 Thermal Vibrations
6.4 X-Ray Diffraction by Solid Solutions
6.5 X-Ray Diffuse Scattering by Solid Solutions
6.6 X-Ray Structure Analysis
7. Intermetallic Compounds
7.1 Classification Schemes for Intermetallic Compounds
7.2 Geometrical Analysis
7.3 AB Compounds
7.4 Compounds AB2
7.5 Compounds AB3
7.6 Number 13
7.7 Close-Packing Principle for Intermetallic Compounds
8. Solid Solutions of Metals
8.1 Unlimited Solubility
8.2 Terminal Solid Solutions
8.3 Solid Solutions on the Basis of Intermetallic Compounds
8.4 Ordering
9. Inorganic Solid Solutions
9.1 Isomorphous Substitutions in Alkali Halide Salts
9.2 Effect of the Difference in Ionic Size on the Solubility Limits in Systems of Inorganic Compounds
9.3 Theory of Ionic Substitutional Solid Solutions
9.4 Interstitial Solid Solutions
10. Conditions of Formation of Substitutional Organic Solid Solutions
10.1 Geometrical Analysis of Substitution
10.2 Conditions of Continuous Solubility
10.3 Energy Calculations
10.4 Unit-Cell Dimensions of Solid Solutions
11. Ordering in Organic Solid Solutions
11.1 One-Component Crystals with Orientational Disorder
11.2 Orientational Disorder in Binary Systems
12. Structures of Organic Solid Solutions
12.1 Diphenyl-2,2?-Dipyridyl [12.2,3]
12.2 Para-Dibromobenzene - Para-Chloronitrobenzene [12.4]
12.3 Acenaphthene - ?-Nitronaphthalene [12.8]
12.4 Naphthalene - Coumarine [12.11]
12.5 Dicarboxylic Acids [12.21,22]
12.6 Naphthalene and Its ? Derivatives [10.14,16,11.25]
12.7 Solid Solutions of Optically Active Substances or Enantiomers
12.8 Durene-Para-Dibromobenzene [12.36]
12.9 Tolane Diphenylmercury [12.391
13. Complexes
13.1 Quasi-Valence Bonds Between Molecules of the Components
13.2 Complexes of Aromatic and Nitro Compounds
13.3 Packing Complexes
13.4 Layered Complexes
14. Polymers
14.1 The Structure of Polymeric Materials
14.2 The Structure of Polymer Blends
14.3 Block Copolymers
14.4 Solid Solutions
14.5 Deformation of an Eutectic Mixture
14.6 Crystalline Complexes of a Polymer and a Low-Molecular-Weight Compound
15. Biopolymers
15.1 Proteins
15.2 Systems Based on DNA Molecules
References.
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登録日 2020.06.27
更新日 2020.06.28