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Microscopic Methods in Metals

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概要 Methods of scientific investigation can be divided into two categories: they are either macroscopic or microscopic in nature. The former are generally older, classical methods where the sample as a wh...ole is studied and various local prop erties are deduced by differentiation. The microscopic methods, on the other hand, have been discovered and developed more recently, and they operate for the most part on an atomistic scale. Glancing through the shelves of books on the various scientific fields, and, in particular, on the field of physical metallurgy, we are surprised at how lit tle consideration has been given to the microscopic methods. How these tools provide new insight and information is a question which so far has not at tracted much attention. Similar observations can be made at scientific confer ences, where the presentation of papers involving microscopic methods is often pushed into a far corner. This has led users of such methods to organize their own special conferences. The aim of this book is to bridge the present gap and encourage more interaction between the various fields of study and selected microscopic meth ods, with special emphasis on their suitability for investigating metals. In each case the principles of the method are reviewed, the advantages and successes pointed out, but also the shortcomings and limitations indicated.続きを見る
目次 1. Concerning Methods
1.1 Descriptive Methods
1.2 Abbreviated Methods
1.3 Name-Tag Methods
2. Scanning Acoustic Microscopy
2.1 Principle of Scanning Acoustic Microscopy (SAM)
2.2 The Image Contrast of Solids in the Reflection Scanning Acoustic Microscope; V(z)-Curves
2.3 Examples of Practical Applications of Reflection Scanning Acoustic Microscopy
2.4 Outlook
References27
3. High-Resolution Electron Microscopy
3.1 Background
3.2 Basic Principles of High-Resolution Electron Microscopy
3.3 Applications
3.4 Outlook
References
4. Field Ion Microscopy
4.1 Principles and Techniques
4.2 Illustrative FIM Studies
References
5. X-Ray and Neutron Diffraction
5.1 Diffraction of Neutrons and X-Rays by Poly- and Non-Crystalline Alloys
5.2 Experimental Techniques
5.3 Applications
References
6. Extended X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure
6.1 Theory
6.2 Experimental Techniques
6.3 Analysis
6.4 Experimental Applications
References
7. X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy
7.1 Historical
7.2 Basic Principles
7.3 Related Methods
7.4 Applications
7.5 Recent Developments
References
8. Auger Electron Spectroscopy
8.1 History
8.2 Principles
8.3 The Instrument
8.4 Related Methods
8.5 Applications
8.6 Future Developments
References
9. Positron Annihilation
9.1 Background
9.2 Basic Principles
9.4 Applications
9.5 Conclusions and Outlook
References
10. Muon Spectroscopy
10.1 Basic Principles of the Experimental Techniques
10.2 The Depolarization Functions
10.3 Diffusion Studies by ?+ SR
10.4 Magnetic Studies by ?+ SR
10.5 Conclusions
References
11. Perturbed Angular Correlation
11.1 Background
11.2 Principles
11.3 Detection of Hyperfine Fields
11.4 Radioactive Probes, Preparation and Techniques
11.5 Applications
11.6 Future Developments and Conclusions
References
12. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
12.1 Introductory Comments
12.2 Physical Background of an NMR Experiment - Hyperfine Interactions
12.3 Basic NMR Experiment - Principles and Setup
12.4 NMR Outputs - Microscopic Origin
12.5 Applications - Structural Investigations
12.7 Conclusion and Outlook
References
13. Mössbauer Spectroscopy
13.1 History
13.2 Principles
13.3 Mössbauer Isotopes
13.4 Methodology
13.5 Hyperfine Interactions
13.5.1 Isomer Shift
13.6 Relativistic Effects
13.7 Time-Dependent Effects
13.8 Applications
13.9 Outlook
References
Additional References with Titles.
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登録日 2020.06.27
更新日 2020.06.28