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学校教育研究における儀礼論的接近 : 若干のレヴューと展望

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概要 In this paper I review the work of several scholars who have used rituals as a major organizing concept for analyzing educational practices. Through reviewing those works we can see the powerful theor...etical influences of outstanding anthropology and sociology scholars such as Emile Durkheim, van Gennep, Victor Turner and Erving Goffman. There are two types of rituals in school life. One type of ritual is large, formal ceremonies, which are separate from everyday school life, e.g. daily morning ceremonies, freshman initiation, graduation, Christmas dances, staff meetings, etc. Another type is smaller ones which are so called interaction rituals (Goffman): little actions between individuals that work to symbolically affirm or challenge the location of the individual in the status quo. Traditional initiation ceremonies have often been used as a mirror for reconsideration of modem school systems from the viewpoint of cultural relativism. On the other hand, there has been interesting work where traditional initiation ceremonies are introduced into a contemporary educational context as a unique practical educational methodology by modernizing them. School events also seem to play a significant role as a medium for the formation of national identity or student identity in the enculturation process. Mclaren, Magolda and Quantz suggest that smaller rituals are more important for studying school cultural than larger ones. That is because they are often integrated into social life, including school life, and help shape our perceptions of daily life and how we live. Mclaren opens the way to the small ritual approach for analyzing school culture and we therefor have an alternative account of modern schooling. The works of Magolda and Quantz draw on the theoretical foundations of Mclaren. Quantz & Magolda suggest that ritual can best be thought of as an aspect of nearly all social action rather than as a categorical type of social act. They make this point by presenting an extended example of very ordinary classroom activities which may appear to be mundane in the extreme, but which present many ritual comments. Magolda examines the messages that a university transmits to prospective students during one particular ritual, the campus tour, as a collection of interaction rituals, and discusses ways that rituals could be examined and modified to create multicultural and democratic communities.続きを見る

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登録日 2012.11.19
更新日 2017.01.05