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ネパールの低開発と知識人 : D.B. ビスタ氏『運命論と開発 : 近代化にむけたネパールの闘い』をめぐって

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概要 A book written by the Nepali anthropologist, Dor Bahadur Bista, Fatalism and Development (1991), has provoked a heated debate on the causes of Nepal's underdevelopment among intellectuals and foreigne...rs who have been concerned about the future of the country. In this book Bista tried to explain Nepal's problems from a sociocultural viewpoint and attributed their causes to the Hinduistic ethic. He insisted that the Hindu high castes, who have long dominated Nepalese society, share a fatalistic belief which undermines personal responsibility and hinders the development of achievement motivation. Institutionalized sycophancy (chafeari) and favoritism for aphno manche (one's own people), which are rampant among bureaucrats, are associated with these attitudes. Bista argued that the majority of intellectuals in Nepal, who should be responsible for the development of the country, are lacking in the sense of responsibility and public spirit indispensable for the progress. Surveying briefly opinions about Bista's book, it is remarkable how clearly they are divided. Most of the supporters are foreigners, while criticisms are from natives, especially Hindu high castes. For foreigners, Bista's book is not only a native's systematic explanation of underdevelopment but also an articulation of their feelings about the attitudes of Nepalese people, and those of intellectuals in particular. On the other hand, for other critics, the book does make unreasonable accusations against the culture and society of Nepal. A typical counterargument is that habits like chakari and favoritism are not limited to Nepal and to ascribe them to a Hinduistic ethic is not acceptable. Some critics accuse Bista of trying to replace native culture, which is the base of identity, with 'successful cultures' such as Western and Japanese. One critic argues that high castes who are playing leading roles in the society have a working spirit which is comparable with the protestant ethic, in sharp contrast to Bista's suggestions. At the same time, supporters of Bista's book can be found among ethnic minorities in Nepal. This fact indicates that there is a chasm between Hindu high castes and ethnic minorities in evaluating Bista's book. Concerning this point, it should be noted that Bista admires the latter's ethics, feeling them to be closer to the protestant values. Examining Bista's argument on bureaucracy in Nepal, we can find that it is rather orthodox in spite of its appearance. lt is an analysis that takes account of the scholarship since Rose and Fisher's The Politics of Nepal (1970),which elucidated the main features of the bureaucracy. Therefore the heated debate on his book is mainly explained by Bista's insistence that the attitudes of bureaucrats and elites in Nepal are based on a Hinduistic ethic which dominant Hindu high castes nurtured for a long time. As the majority of them are from these castes, they feel themselves to be accused directly of causing underdevelopment.続きを見る

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登録日 2009.04.22
更新日 2017.07.26