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A TEMPERATURE MODEL FOR COTTON PHENOLOGY

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概要 Agricultural production is becoming more mechanized and based on improved technology, however, many important management applications depend on crop growth stage and growing status. Crop growth rate a...nd developmental stage depends largely on weather conditions since planting and the crop responses to temperature. We conducted experiments in naturally lighted, temperature, carbon dioxide, water and nutrients controlled plant growth chambers. Upland cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L. and pima cotton, G. barbadense L. plants were grown at a range of temperatures from 20/12 to 40/32℃ (day/night) in well watered and fertilized conditions. The plants were monitored daily to determine the rates of flower buds (squares) and flower formation, fruit maturation, and leaf/node formation. Also the duration of leaf and internode expansion was determined. Modern cultivars of these two cotton species develop squares faster at the same temperatures than cultivars used two or three decades earlier. Temperature responses of both species for time to first square, squaring to flowering, mainstem and fruiting branch node formation, and duration of leaf and internode Expansion were nonlinear. A quadratic formula expressing the duration of various developmental stages as functions of average temperature fit the data better than linear equations. Pima cotton square and fruit formation were more sensitive to temperature than upland cotton cultivars. At average temperatures above 27℃ pima cotton developed squares more slowly than upland cotton. The lengths of square and boll maturation periods in both cotton species were directly related to the temperature to which they were exposed. However, pima cotton took more time for these developmental phases compared to upland cotton. The ratio of mainstem nodes formed per fruiting branch node formed was temperature sensitive and nonlinear. Data on these developmental events/processes were used to estimate timing of leaf unfolding, duration of leaf and internode expansion, and several reproductive processes as functions of temperature.続きを見る

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登録日 2009.04.22
更新日 2015.11.09