In this review, we firstly focused on the role of muscle fiber composition and neuroendocrinological disturbance as an etiology of the development of obesity, and secondarily summarized the relationships between muscle fiber composition and lipid, and glucose metabolism, and the muscle adaptation to training on these relationships. In addition, we discussed the relationships of steroid hormones to lipid and glucose metabolism in men and women with obesity and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Although muscle fiber composition was originally determined by genetic factor, it contributed to improvement of lipid and glucose metabolism through muscle adaptations to endurance training. In recent articles, it has been postulated as hypothesis that activation of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis by so-called "psychosocial stressors" was one of the main triggers of adipose tissue accumulation, especially visceral fat. Lastly, we discussed the possibility that both male and female hormones were important physiological regulators of lipid and glucose metabolism, regardless of sex difference. However, cause and effect on this relationship are still remains to be clarified at present time. Further research is needed for understanding above mentioned problems.