||Measurement of systolic blood pressure (SBP), fatty mass (%Fat) and food intake were carried out on 252 females aged 20-72 years living in mountainous, rural and suburban districts. Measurement of SBP... was made on the right arm with subjects in a seated position by automatic sphygmomanometer (BP-103, Nihon-korin Co.) and Riva-rocci sphygmomanometer. %Fat was estimated from skinfold according to the method of Nagamine. Observation of food intake was conducted by a routine questioning, however, checks and counter checks were made by personal interviews until reliable figures had satisfactorily been obtained. And the unit of daily intake of thiamin and riboflavin was expressed as the values per kilocalorie of caloric intake and that of caloric intake and other nutrients was expressed as the values per kilogram of body weight. No significant correlation was found between SBP and %Fat, but only 17 persent of subjects whose SBP above 140 mmHg showed higher %Fat than 30.0% in the case of mountainous village, however, the appearance rate was 56 percent in the case of suburban districts. Significant negative correlatians were found between SBP and calorie, protein, animal protein, fat, animal fat, iron and sodium at 1% level and calcium, retinol potency and thiamin at 5% level. Significant positive correlation was found between SBP and age at 1% level. Significant partial correiations were found between SBP and calorie, protein, animal protein and animal fat at 1% level and fat and retinol potency at 5% level when the elimination of the effect of age was made. And after the elimination of the effects of caloric intake, significant partial correlation was found only between SBP and animal protein (P＜0.05), and significant partial correlations were found between SBP and calorie at 1% level and protein at 5% level when the elimination of the effect of animal protein Intake was made. However, significant positive correlations were found between most of nutrients intake and intake of calorie and animal protein. These results imply that different factors have to be considered according as the difference of living style for the the prevention of essential hypertension, and in the case of this investigation, it may be said that obesity or physical inactivity, low animal protein intake or malnutrition are factors of high SBP, however, SBP was not affected by sodium intake.