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食餌,運動,身体組成と血清脂質 : 都市と山村との比較

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概要 Food intake, physical activity (maximal aerobic power), body composition and serum lipids of the population of a mountainous village (MV) was compared to that of a working class group in urban distric...ts (UD). In the case of UD, no severe nutritional problems were found. However, significantly lower maximal aerobic power and significantly higher % Fat than MV were found. These results show that active life is important for maintaining the ideal nutritional conditions without accumulating the excess body fat. In the case of females, UD showed mean intake of energy, protein and fat and mean body height significantly higher than those of MV, however MV showed mean body weight and lean body mass significantly higher than UD. In the case of UD, about 13% of females and about 7% of males did not exceed their body weight by 20% the ideal weight but their % Fat were higher than 30% in females and 20% in males. However, in the case of MV, about 44% of females and about 17% of males exceeded their body weight by 20% the ideal weight but their % Fat were lower than 30% in females and 20% in males. These facts imply two possibilities that in the first, physical inactivity may decrease the availability of nutrients, e. g. protein intake to the development of lean body mass, and secondly, the estimation of obesity by the ideal weight may have confused the prevention and treatment of obesity. No significant differences of serum lipids between MV and UD were found in the case of females. However, in the case of males, MV showed mean values of HDL and HDL/TC significantly higher than those of UD, and mean values of TC and TG of UD were significantly higher than those of MV. As for the sex difference, females showed significantly higher HDL and HDL/TC and significantly lower TG than males in the case of UD, however, in the case of MV, males showed significantly higher HDL/TC and significantly lower TC than females, and mean HDL of males was higher than that of females but the difference was not significant. Energy from fat of UD was lower than 30% of total caloric intake and the animal fat was less than 50% of total fat intake. These facts supported the previously reported results that physicalactivity rather than diets was associated with the development and maintainance of obesity and hyperlipidemia, and effects of the increase of % Fat or physical inactivity on some risk factors of degenerative cardiovascular diseases such as blood pressure and serum lipids were less in females than males.
都市および山村に居住する成人男女を対象に,食餌,運動,身体組成,血清脂質などについての調査測定を行った。1)都市には運動不足の傾向が認められたが,山村にはそのような傾向は認められなかった。2)都市にも若干の問題があるにはあるが,全般的には望ましい食餌の状態であると判断された。しかし,山村では穀類エネルギー比が高く,動物性食品の摂取量が少ない傾向にあり,ビタミン類やミネラル類の摂取量には所要量を下回る傾向もみられた。3)身長および'%Fatは都市の方が有意に高かったが,男性では体重およびLBMに有意な差は認められず,女性の場合には,体重およびLBMは,山村の方が有意に高かった。また,蛋白質摂取量も都市の方が高かった。4)以上のことから,身長と体重の比による肥満度の判定法には若干の問題があること,また,身体活動の状態が栄養素の利用率に影響を及ぼす可能性があることを指摘した。5)女性の場合,血清脂質に地域差は認められなかったが,男性の場合には地域差が忍められた。すなわち,都市の男性は山村の男性よりも,HDLが低く,TG,TCが高い傾向であった。6)都市では,HDLは女性の方が,TGは男性の方が有意に高い傾向であった。また,山村の男性のHDLは,都市や山村の女性よりもむしろ高い傾向であった。7).血清脂質や性差や地域差の主要な原因としては,男性が女性よりも肥満や運動不足の影響を強く受けるためであると考えられた。8)都市においては,運動不足の解消,とりわけ男性を対象とした運動不足の解消を中心とした健康の維持増進策が必要であり,山村では,動物性食品の普及など,食生活の改善を中心とした健康の維持増進策が必要であろうと考えられた。
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登録日 2009.09.08
更新日 2018.06.12