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徳川後期の宿場町における土地市場と不動産経営 : 取手宿本陣染野家のケーススタディ

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概要 The purposes of this article are to analyze the fluctuation and settlement of land rents at Toride Town in the second half of the Tokugawa period and to compare them with those in Edo at that time. To...ride is a country place in a suburb of Edo where the Mito Road and the Tone River meet. It has a riverfront and held a regular market from the end of the seventeenth century. In the middle of the eighteenth century, merchants there started to import fertilizer, fish, and soy sauce from Choshi Port at the mouth of the Tone, while exporting wheat. The expansion of a local market like this gave commercial and job opportunities to inhabitants near Toride as well as to those from other areas. Hence, the Someno family, the head of Toride, who served as an official inn for daimyos, began to rent his own lands and houses in the second half of the eighteenth century. The first of the two major discoveries is the land profitability of Toride Town. The land rents of the Someno family's tenants were very low compared to their incomes. This seemed to be one of the factors attracting inhabitants into the town and increasing demand for land, though the supply of them had reached its limit. Therefore, the land rents started to rise. Especially in the nineteenth century, they seemed to rise high in comparison with prices and real wages in Toride in spite of declining real land rents in Edo. The second is the flexible settlement of land rents. The family attempted to change them twice while greatly marking them up. In 1800, the family established the rule of payments made at Bon, the year's end. They often bought what their tenants dealt with on credit, and this must have offset bills collected at that time. But twenty years later, he renewed the system of payment of collecting land rents monthly, in order to avoid risk of default. On the other hand, monthly payments also benefitted their tenants, who could save some cash in the case of a price rise. From what has been discussed above, we can recognize that a land owner in a rural area had the flexibility to choose how to collect land rents from his tenants according to their livelihood as well as the local market, while a land owner in Edo had a little opportunity to actively show his management skills. These facts lead us to the conclusion that both the land market and real estate management in rural areas probably present an enormous contrast to those in huge cities in the late Tokugawa period.
本稿の目的は,下総国取手宿本陣・染野家を事例に,徳川後期の町場における土地賃貸市場と地貸店貸経営について分析することにある。 第1の土地賃貸市場について,取手宿の地代は,18世紀後半まで土地利用者の収入に比すれば微々たる金額に過ぎなかった。しかし,この点が周辺農民を町場に引きつけ,土地需要を誘発させる要因のひとつとなった。対照的に19世紀に入ると,物価や賃金と比較して相対的に上昇する傾向にあったことから,町場における商業活動は,その要素として土地への配分を重視するようになったと判断される。 第2の地貸店貸経営について,染野家では,取手周辺の景気動向や貸主・借主双方の生計事情に応じて,地代の決済方法を柔軟かつ大胆に転換させていた。他方,江戸の町屋敷経営では,地主が積極的にその経営手腕を発揮する機会を持ち合わせていなかったことから,徳川後期の土地市場と不動産経営は,江戸とその近郊の町場との間で,実に対照的な動きを示していたのではないかと結論づけられる。
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目次 I. はじめに II. 取手宿と染野藤左衛門家 III. 「店請証文」と「店地代金通帳」 IV.賃貸軒数と地代収入の推移 V.地代の決定メカニズムと決済構造 1.1787~1827年 2.1828~1868年 VI.結語

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登録日 2009.11.12
更新日 2016.03.02