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1.
Article
Kyushu Univ. Production Kyushu Univ. Production
Cover image of On the emancipation of materia medica studies (honzōgaku) in early modern Japan — 近世日本における本草学の自立について
Michel, Wolfgang ; ミヒェル, ヴォルフガング ; Michel, Zaitsu
Publication info: Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on the History of Indigenous Knowledge (ISHIK 2015). pp. 93-106, 2015-11-01.
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Abstract: Since the pioneering work by the phytopathologist and natural historian Shirai Mitsutarō (1863–1932), the beginnings of genuine native studies on Japanese herbs have been linked to Kaibara Ekiken’s book “Japanese Materia Medica” (大和本草 Yamato honzō) published in 1709.[1] However, a closer look that includes Dutch source material from the second half of the 17th century reveals that there was more to this process of emancipation from Chinese herbology than the individual ingenuity of a neo-Confucian scholar. The harsh economic realities of the archipelago had a strong influence on all political decisions related to resources, imports, and exports from the very beginning of Japan’s Edo period (1603–1868). During the 1650s, the adoption of Western medicine led to the introduction of herbs and drugs that were not known hitherto and were imported from the Dutch East India Company. Insufficient and high-priced supply eventually stimulated an attempt initiated by the imperial councilor Inaba Masanori to start local production of certain medical materials and to investigate local plants, while requesting seeds and plants from the Dutch East India Company and the dispatch of herb specialists. Joint Dutch–Japanese botanical investigations and instruction about imported and local plants by European physicians and pharmacists provided a reference point (tertium comparationis) that enabled their Japanese counterparts to achieve a new view of such Chinese herbals as the “Principles and Species of Materia Medica” (本草綱目 Bĕncǎo gāngmù) while heightening their awareness of the distinctive properties of indigenous Japanese flora. About five decades before Shōgun Tokugawa Yoshimune (1684–1751) implemented his famous “herb policy”, almost identical attempts were made under Tokugawa Ietsuna (1641–1680). These activities faded out with the accession of his successor Tokugawa Tsunayoshi (1646–1709), but herb studies continued to be a common field of interest for Japan as well as for the Dutch East India Company throughout the Edo period. Read more
2.
Book
Kyushu Univ. Production Kyushu Univ. Production
Cover image of A naturalist lost – C. P. Thunberg’s disciple Johan Arnold Stützer (1763–1821) in the East Indies
Wolfgang, Michel
Publication info: Japanese collections in European museums : reports from the Toyota-Foundation-Symposium Königswinter 2003. 3, pp. 147-162, 2015-03-01. Bier'sche Verlagsanstalt
Series: JapanArchiv; 5,3
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Abstract: カール・ペテル・ツンベルクの門弟のなか、師と同様に出島オランダ商館医として日本まで来られたのは、ヨハン・アルノルト・ストゥッツエル(1763–1821)のみだったが、日本滞在の詳細は殆ど不明であり、「東インド」における彼のその他の活動も部分的にしか報告されていない。本稿では東西の史料を踏まえながら、ストゥッツエルの生涯の全貌を追究するとともに、日本の医療に関する彼の観察を紹介することにする。ツンベルク及び兄弟子ホルンステットを手本に東方へ旅だったこの有望な若き医師兼・然科学者は、以前と大きく異なった状況や想定外の出来事によりその夢をあきらめざるを得なくなり、最後にイギリス東インド会社の医師として活躍することになった。また、来日したヨーロッパ人が入手した収集品は中央ヨーロッパの珍品コレクションに追加されながら、ストゥッツエルの品々はエカチェリーナ2世に寄贈され、サンクトペテルブルクの「クンストカメラ」に収蔵された。 Read more
3.
Book
Kyushu Univ. Production Kyushu Univ. Production
Cover image of Medicine and Allied Sciences in the Cultural Exchange between Japan and Europe in the Seventeenth Century — ヴォルフガング ミヒェル:17世紀の日欧交流における医学、薬学、本草学
Michel, Wolfgang ; ミヒェル, ヴォルフガング ; Michel-Zaitsu, Wolfgang
Publication info: 2008. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht Unipress
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Table of Contents:
Blind Spots // Faint Traces of 'Southern-Barbarian-Style Surgery' // The Rise of 'Read-Head-Style Surgery' // Growing Needs for New Medicaments // An Official Request // Godefried Haeck, First Western Pharmacist in Japan // Franz Braun's Distillation at Dejima // Fading Interest at the Court in Edo // Growing Dutch Interest in Japanese Plants // Some Implications //
Blind Spots // Faint Traces of 'Southern-Barbarian-Style Surgery' // The Rise of 'Read-Head-Style Surgery' // Growing Needs for New Medicaments // An Official Request // Godefried Haeck, First Western Pharmacist in Japan // Franz Braun's Distillation at Dejima // Fading Interest at the Court in Edo // Growing Dutch Interest in Japanese Plants // Some Implications //
4.
Article
Kyushu Univ. Production Kyushu Univ. Production
Cover image of 「貴重古医書コレクションの点描」
Michel, Wolfgang; Michel-Zaitsu, Wolfgang; 大島, 明秀 ... [et al.]
Publication info: Kyushu University Library, Research and Development Division Annual Report. 2005/2006, pp. 30-35, 2006-06-01. Kyushu University Library, Research and Development Division
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5.
Article
Kyushu Univ. Production Kyushu Univ. Production
Cover image of On Engelbert Kaempfer's
Michel, Wolfgang (Michel-Zaitsu)
Publication info: W. Michel, Research Notes (2005-12-06) // W. Michel, Research Notes (revised edition 2011-05-06). pp. 1-5, 2005-12-06.
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6.
Article
Kyushu Univ. Production Kyushu Univ. Production
Cover image of 江戸初期の光学製品輸入について — On Japanese Imports of Optical Instruments during the Early Edo Period
ミヒェル, ヴォルフガング
Publication info: 洋学. 12, pp. 119-164, 2003-05. Society for the History of Western Studies in Japan
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Abstract: Based on unpublished sources of the Dutch East Indian Company (VOC) this study traces the imports of spectacles, magnifying glasses, telescopes and microscopes during the 17th and early 18th century. For each of these items it is shown when and how it was introduced to Japan and in which quantities it was delivered during the first decades. Technical specifications are given as well as the name of Japanese officials who received these optical instruments as presents or bought it as a high priced commodity. Furthermore the introduction of glass blowing is clarified for the first time and some light is shed on Mori Ninzaemon, one of the first Japanese telescope makers. While telescopes were introduced soon after their invention in amazing quantitites, it took more than a century for the first imports of microscopes to take place because they were considered to be less useful. For similar reasons the import of magnifying glasses was interrupted in 1668 when the Tokugawa regime declared a series of commodities to be unnecessary and therefore not welcome any more. Spectacles were brought to Japan throughout the 17th century, but the Dutch dealt mainly in small quantities of expensive and therefore lucrative models often sold together with lavish cases. Read more

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