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1.
Article
Kyushu Univ. Production Kyushu Univ. Production
Cover image of On the emancipation of materia medica studies (honzōgaku) in early modern Japan — 近世日本における本草学の自立について
Michel, Wolfgang ; ミヒェル, ヴォルフガング ; Michel, Zaitsu
Publication info: Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on the History of Indigenous Knowledge (ISHIK 2015). pp. 93-106, 2015-11-01.
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Abstract: Since the pioneering work by the phytopathologist and natural historian Shirai Mitsutarō (1863–1932), the beginnings of genuine native studies on Japanese herbs have been linked to Kaibara Ekiken’s book “Japanese Materia Medica” (大和本草 Yamato honzō) published in 1709.[1] However, a closer look that includes Dutch source material from the second half of the 17th century reveals that there was more to this process of emancipation from Chinese herbology than the individual ingenuity of a neo-Confucian scholar. The harsh economic realities of the archipelago had a strong influence on all political decisions related to resources, imports, and exports from the very beginning of Japan’s Edo period (1603–1868). During the 1650s, the adoption of Western medicine led to the introduction of herbs and drugs that were not known hitherto and were imported from the Dutch East India Company. Insufficient and high-priced supply eventually stimulated an attempt initiated by the imperial councilor Inaba Masanori to start local production of certain medical materials and to investigate local plants, while requesting seeds and plants from the Dutch East India Company and the dispatch of herb specialists. Joint Dutch–Japanese botanical investigations and instruction about imported and local plants by European physicians and pharmacists provided a reference point (tertium comparationis) that enabled their Japanese counterparts to achieve a new view of such Chinese herbals as the “Principles and Species of Materia Medica” (本草綱目 Bĕncǎo gāngmù) while heightening their awareness of the distinctive properties of indigenous Japanese flora. About five decades before Shōgun Tokugawa Yoshimune (1684–1751) implemented his famous “herb policy”, almost identical attempts were made under Tokugawa Ietsuna (1641–1680). These activities faded out with the accession of his successor Tokugawa Tsunayoshi (1646–1709), but herb studies continued to be a common field of interest for Japan as well as for the Dutch East India Company throughout the Edo period. Read more
2.
Book
Kyushu Univ. Production Kyushu Univ. Production
Cover image of A naturalist lost – C. P. Thunberg’s disciple Johan Arnold Stützer (1763–1821) in the East Indies
Wolfgang, Michel
Publication info: Japanese collections in European museums : reports from the Toyota-Foundation-Symposium Königswinter 2003. 3, pp. 147-162, 2015-03-01. Bier'sche Verlagsanstalt
Series: JapanArchiv; 5,3
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Abstract: カール・ペテル・ツンベルクの門弟のなか、師と同様に出島オランダ商館医として日本まで来られたのは、ヨハン・アルノルト・ストゥッツエル(1763–1821)のみだったが、日本滞在の詳細は殆ど不明であり、「東インド」における彼のその他の活動も部分的にしか報告されていない。本稿では東西の史料を踏まえながら、ストゥッツエルの生涯の全貌を追究するとともに、日本の医療に関する彼の観察を紹介することにする。ツンベルク及び兄弟子ホルンステットを手本に東方へ旅だったこの有望な若き医師兼・然科学者は、以前と大きく異なった状況や想定外の出来事によりその夢をあきらめざるを得なくなり、最後にイギリス東インド会社の医師として活躍することになった。また、来日したヨーロッパ人が入手した収集品は中央ヨーロッパの珍品コレクションに追加されながら、ストゥッツエルの品々はエカチェリーナ2世に寄贈され、サンクトペテルブルクの「クンストカメラ」に収蔵された。 Read more
3.
Book
Kyushu Univ. Production Kyushu Univ. Production
Cover image of The True Shape of Bones : On the Dawn of Anatomical Dissection in Early Modern Japan — 人骨の真形 : 日本における人体解剖の黎明期について
Michel, Wolfgang ; Michel-Zaitsu, Wolfgang ; ミヒェル, ヴォルフガング
Publication info: Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on History of Indigenous Knowledge. pp. 37-44, 2014-10. Society for the History of Indigenous Knowledge
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Abstract: The history of anatomical dissections in early modern Japan has been recounted many times, usually beginning with Yamawaki Tōyō (1706–1762) who conducted the first Japanese autopsy in 1754. As Yamawaki, and all those curious physicians who followed his example, consulted European anatomy books, their dissections are unanimously considered to be a response to Western stimuli. This view is based on the assumption that anatomical research in Japanese traditional medicine had fallen into a stage of stagnation, lacking any impetus toward further progress. However, a closer look reveals that Japanese interest in anatomy had already been rekindled in the first half of the 18th century, when osteopathic pioneers and an ambitious ophthalmologist had begun to prefer their own observations over the mere study of classical texts, and even ventured out to have a look into the interior of human cadavers. This paper traces these activities and their indigenous history. Read more
4.
Article
Kyushu Univ. Production Kyushu Univ. Production
Cover image of Tradition and Innovation – Medical Instruments in Edo and Meiji Japan.
Michel, Wolfgang (Michel-Zaitsu)
Publication info: Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium on the History of Indigenous Knowledge (ISHIK 2012). 2012, pp. 61-67, 2012-10. Saga University, Center for Regional Culture and History
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Abstract: In 1870, the Meiji government decided to adopt German medicine as the base of the new national health-care system while starting to restrict traditional Sino-Japanese medicine. These policies not only deeply affected the education and activities of physicians throughout the country but also had a profound impact on the production and distribution of pharmaceuticals and medical instruments. Facing a shrinking market for traditional drugs, acupuncture needles, and surgical instruments, merchants such as Shirai Matsunosuke (Osaka) searched for ways to secure their place in the new medical system. While importing instruments from Western companies, they also employed swordsmiths, gunmakers, glassblowers, and other traditional craftsmen and managed to lay the foundation for independent national production. Initially, orders came only from domestic hospitals and physicians, but soon new markets were developed in China, Korea, India, and Hawaii, among other places. After only a few decades, products that had received medals in national industrial exhibitions were also recognized in universal expositions. Without these flexible and farsighted entrepreneurs and the technical skills accumulated by traditional craftsmen during the Edo period, the quick modernization of medicine in Meiji Japan would not have been possible. Read more
5.
Book
Kyushu Univ. Production Kyushu Univ. Production
Cover image of Glimpses of medicine in early Japanese-German intercourse
Michel, Wolfgang (Michel-Zaitsu)
Publication info: pp. 72-94, 2011-12-26. International Medical Society of Japan (IMSJ)
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6.
Article
Kyushu Univ. Production Kyushu Univ. Production
Cover image of Border Crossing and Intellectual Curiosity – On the Modernization of Japanese Medicine during the Edo Period — 越境と知的好奇心 ー 近代医学へ至る道
Michel, Wolfgang (Michel-Zaitsu)
Publication info: 2011-11-09. Nagasaki University
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Table of Contents:
Introductory Remarks // Early Beginnings // Economic Conditions // Physicians as Pioneers // The Dejima Trading Post // Nagasaki as the Cradle of “Dutch Studies” // Printing and Copying // Homo Ludens // Collectors and Collections // Language Studies // Educational Institutions //
Introductory Remarks // Early Beginnings // Economic Conditions // Physicians as Pioneers // The Dejima Trading Post // Nagasaki as the Cradle of “Dutch Studies” // Printing and Copying // Homo Ludens // Collectors and Collections // Language Studies // Educational Institutions //
7.
Article
Kyushu Univ. Production Kyushu Univ. Production
Cover image of Japanese Acupuncture and Moxibustion in Europe from the 16th to 18th Centuries
Michel, Wolfgang (Michel-Zaitsu)
Publication info: Japanese Acupuncture and Moxibustion. 2011, (1), pp. 1-11, 2011. The Japan Society of Acupuncture and Moxibustion (JSAM)
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Table of Contents:
I. Medicine in Early Modern Interactions between East and West // II. A ‘Secluded Country’ as a Source of Information // III. ‘Southern Barbarians’ and Sino-Japanese Medicine // IV. The Relocation of the Dutch Trading Post and the Beginning of Continuous Interactions between Japanese and European Physicians // V. ‘Moxa’ as a Remedy against Podagra // VI. On the Transmission of Acupuncture to the West // VII. Controversy about the Evaluation //
I. Medicine in Early Modern Interactions between East and West // II. A ‘Secluded Country’ as a Source of Information // III. ‘Southern Barbarians’ and Sino-Japanese Medicine // IV. The Relocation of the Dutch Trading Post and the Beginning of Continuous Interactions between Japanese and European Physicians // V. ‘Moxa’ as a Remedy against Podagra // VI. On the Transmission of Acupuncture to the West // VII. Controversy about the Evaluation //
8.
Book
Kyushu Univ. Production Kyushu Univ. Production
Cover image of Medicine and Allied Sciences in the Cultural Exchange between Japan and Europe in the Seventeenth Century — ヴォルフガング ミヒェル:17世紀の日欧交流における医学、薬学、本草学
Michel, Wolfgang ; ミヒェル, ヴォルフガング ; Michel-Zaitsu, Wolfgang
Publication info: 2008. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht Unipress
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Table of Contents:
Blind Spots // Faint Traces of 'Southern-Barbarian-Style Surgery' // The Rise of 'Read-Head-Style Surgery' // Growing Needs for New Medicaments // An Official Request // Godefried Haeck, First Western Pharmacist in Japan // Franz Braun's Distillation at Dejima // Fading Interest at the Court in Edo // Growing Dutch Interest in Japanese Plants // Some Implications //
Blind Spots // Faint Traces of 'Southern-Barbarian-Style Surgery' // The Rise of 'Read-Head-Style Surgery' // Growing Needs for New Medicaments // An Official Request // Godefried Haeck, First Western Pharmacist in Japan // Franz Braun's Distillation at Dejima // Fading Interest at the Court in Edo // Growing Dutch Interest in Japanese Plants // Some Implications //
9.
Article
Kyushu Univ. Production Kyushu Univ. Production
Cover image of Western Medicine and Pharmaceutics in Seventeenth Century Japan
Michel, Wolfgang ; Michel-Zaitsu, Wolfgang
Publication info: Proceedings of the International Conference on the History of Science in East Asia. 10, pp. 173-184, 2005-07. Jiao-Tong-University Press (Shanghai)
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Abstract: Scholarly discussion of “Dutch Studies” (rangaku) as the foundation of modernization in Japan focuses on the 18th and early 19th centuries, while the previous century has been grossly neglected. Some of the reasons for this may be the complex status of primary sources, many of which are mixed up with later materials. At the same time, the “'policy of seclusion'” pursued by the first Tokugawa-shoguns has encouraged the general notion of a hiatus around 1641 which supposedly affected Japan’s scientific intercoursewith the outside world as well. This paper traces the birth of “Caspar-style surgery” (kasuparu ryu geka) in 1650–51 and the establishment of “Red Hair Medicine” (komoryu igaku) during the second half of the 17th century. The acceptance of this new kind of medicine is shown to be the result of a variety of factors. Procedural changes in Dutch–Japanese relations led to more frequent encounters between Western surgeons and high-ranking government officials. Successful treatments by an experienced German surgeon drew their attention to the usefulness of Western surgery. Thanks to the efforts of a few influential personalities, new surgical treatment methods and prescriptions entered Japanese society via the elite. Research shows that Western Medicine was introduced both through individually-motivated action by certain key people within the ruling elite who sought to maintain their own health, as well as through their more generalised political endeavours to stabilize the still-young Tokugawa regime. The restrictions imposed on exchanges with foreign countries seem to have created an awareness of deficiencies in a variety of fields, such as heavy weaponry, land surveying, surgery, and related disciplines. It was the Japanese themselves who were placing orders for books, objects, and samples, and asking for specialists and demonstrations of special skills, etc. For many decades, their opposite number in these exchanges, the Dutch East India Company (VOC), played a passive, sometimes even reluctant role in responding to these requests. The introduction of new treatment methods stimulated botanical and pharmaceutical studies, because the herbs, drugs, and oils needed for ointments and plasters had to be imported at great risk and at high prices. During the second half of the 17th century, the orders for herbariums similar to those of Dodonaeus, and for living plants and seeds are closely related to the spread of “Red-Hair-Style Surgery”. Even a full-scale distillery was brought to the Dutch factory in Nagasaki and was used for teaching purposes and for producing medical oils for almost two decades. While the first impetus came from high-ranking circles in Edo, the practical introduction of new knowledge throughout the country took place on ground already made fertile by the introduction of many new technologies from China during the previous centuries. An examination of Sino-Japanese relations highlights the limited scope of the Euro-Japanese exchanges discussed here. After the expulsion of the last remaining Iberians from Japan in 1638 the level of Portuguese language skills deteriorated rapidly, while for many decades the study of Dutch did not reach a level that allowed independent study of Western sources. Knowledge was transmitted to the Japanese largely via oral instruction and demonstration using a limited number of terms, and so remained restricted to practical skills. In the absence of a deeper understanding of the theoretical background to Western-style surgery, it was used in a fragmented and selective way in Japan, and was filtered through the concepts of traditional Sino-Japanese medicine. Thus, while most of the elements constituting the fully-fledged “Dutch Studies” of the 18th century were already present at this early stage, the progress made was very slow. Nevertheless, the acceptance of “Red-Hair-Style Surgery” in the upper social echelons is signalled by the requests to Dutch factory surgeons for medical “diplomas” by Japanese disciples, and by the appointment of a translator to the Edo court, who was well educated in Western-style surgery. Read more
10.
Article
Kyushu Univ. Production Kyushu Univ. Production
Cover image of Far Eastern Medicine in Seventeenth and Early Eighteenth Century Germany
Michel, Wolfgang
Publication info: Studies in Languages and Cultures — Studies in Languages and Cultures. 20, pp. 67-82, 2005-02-28. Kyushu University Faculty of Languages and Cultures
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Abstract: The impressive cultural aura of China blocks the view of its neighbouring countries far too easily. Despite their geographic vicinity to the “helikon” of the East, these countries handled the culture they adopted from her with surprising independency. Thus, Japan’s role in the early transmission of “Chinese medicine” to Europe has not received sufficient recognition. Furthermore many of these observations were made by Germans and throughout the 17th and early 18th century above all scholars in Germany were most active in trying to understand the new treatment methods. The first documented Western remarks on acupuncture and moxibustion came from Jesuits living in 16th century Japan and are far older than those sources presented by Lu/Needham. Then in the early 1670s H. Buschoff put up a manuscript on the miraculous effects of moxa (< jap. mogusa) in the treatment of gout. His Dutch booklet was translated almost immediately into German by a member of the “Leopoldina” and sparked a lively debate about the nature of the “East Indian wool”. After a young Dutch doctor, W. ten Rhijne, was not able to solve this mistery during his stay in Japan, Andreas Cleyer, a German physician and merchant who lived in Nagasaki for two years as chief of the VOC trading post, was contacted. Partly in collaboration with Georg Meister, who later published the “Oriental East Indian Pleasure Gardener”, Cleyer collected materials on Japanese material medica and together with several descriptions of Japanese herbs he finally was able to deliver an answer to this question. Back in Batavia Cleyer was instrumental in the preparation of E. Kaempfer’s research program on Japan. Kaempfer’s research questions came from interested circles in Germany and their counterparts in the Dutch East India Company. Based on the findings of his predecessors at Dejima he collected further plant specimens, books and other informations about material medica, acupuncture and moxibustion. Kaempfer and the readers of his influential publications were not aware of the differences between Chinese and Japanese medicine. Some of the remedies, methods and concepts, that formed early Western notions of Chinese medicine, were actually of purely Japanese origin and unknown in China. As far as the technical aspects are concerned Kaempfer gave the most comprehensive description of his era, but when he turned to the underlying theoretical concepts the language barriers at the trading post Dejima posed an invincible obstacle. Linked to classic Graeco-Roman notions Eastern medicine lost much of its attraction. Nevertheless, for German practitioners like G. Purmann moxibustion appeared to be quite attractive. Acupuncture on the other hand was refuted not only by Heister, as Kaempfer’s descriptions lead to further misunderstandings. Eventually Eastern medicine became an exotic practice, its needles and moxa were enclosed in the rarity chambers of the curious collector. Read more

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