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1.
Book
Kyushu Univ. Production Kyushu Univ. Production
Cover image of The True Shape of Bones : On the Dawn of Anatomical Dissection in Early Modern Japan — 人骨の真形 : 日本における人体解剖の黎明期について
Michel, Wolfgang ; Michel-Zaitsu, Wolfgang ; ミヒェル, ヴォルフガング
Publication info: Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on History of Indigenous Knowledge. pp. 37-44, 2014-10. Society for the History of Indigenous Knowledge
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Abstract: The history of anatomical dissections in early modern Japan has been recounted many times, usually beginning with Yamawaki Tōyō (1706–1762) who conducted the first Japanese autopsy in 1754. As Yamawaki, and all those curious physicians who followed his example, consulted European anatomy books, their dissections are unanimously considered to be a response to Western stimuli. This view is based on the assumption that anatomical research in Japanese traditional medicine had fallen into a stage of stagnation, lacking any impetus toward further progress. However, a closer look reveals that Japanese interest in anatomy had already been rekindled in the first half of the 18th century, when osteopathic pioneers and an ambitious ophthalmologist had begun to prefer their own observations over the mere study of classical texts, and even ventured out to have a look into the interior of human cadavers. This paper traces these activities and their indigenous history. Read more
2.
Book
Kyushu Univ. Production Kyushu Univ. Production
Cover image of 人物と交流Ⅲ(中津市歴史民俗資料館 分館 医家史料館叢書13) — Personalities and EncountersⅢ(Nakatsu Municipal Museum for History and Folklore, Medical Archive Series No 13)
Yoshida, Yoichi; 大島, 明秀; 吉田, 洋一 ... [et al.]
Publication info: 2014-03-31. City of Nakatsu, Board of Education
Series: Nakatsu Municipal Museum of Histry and Folklore Mudical Archive series; 13
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Table of Contents:
Machiko HIRAO Tashiro Motonori and Takaki Kanehiro: Two doctors from Kyushu who introduced modern nursing in Meiji Japan // Akihide OSHIMA On the "Secret Book about medical treatment and dispensing medicines" kept by the physician family Tabuchi // Yoichi YOSHIDA The social world of the Murakami family as seen in an old hanging scroll // Mieko TOSHO Source materials related to the "Mihata Elementary Schools win Early Meiji Nakatsu // Eri NAKAMURA A The hanging scroll of Kamei Y0shu kept by the Murakami Medical Archive // Natsumi NARITOMI The book"Nozuchi" kept by the Karashima family // Wolfgang MICHEL The first Western map showing the place-name Nakatsu // ABSTRACTS // INDEX
Machiko HIRAO Tashiro Motonori and Takaki Kanehiro: Two doctors from Kyushu who introduced modern nursing in Meiji Japan // Akihide OSHIMA On the "Secret Book about medical treatment and dispensing medicines" kept by the physician family Tabuchi // Yoichi YOSHIDA The social world of the Murakami family as seen in an old hanging scroll // Mieko TOSHO Source materials related to the "Mihata Elementary Schools win Early Meiji Nakatsu // Eri NAKAMURA A The hanging scroll of Kamei Y0shu kept by the Murakami Medical Archive // Natsumi NARITOMI The book"Nozuchi" kept by the Karashima family // Wolfgang MICHEL The first Western map showing the place-name Nakatsu // ABSTRACTS // INDEX
3.
Book
Kyushu Univ. Production Kyushu Univ. Production
Cover image of 近世日本医学における「越境」と「折衷」 — Bordercrossing and Eclecticism in Early Modern Japanese Medicine
ミヒェル, ヴォルフガング ; Michel, Wolfgang ; Michel-Zaitsu, Wolfgang
Publication info: 医は仁術. pp. 138-144, 2014-03-14. TBSテレビ
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4.
Article
Kyushu Univ. Production Kyushu Univ. Production
Cover image of Johann Caspar Scheuchzer (1702-1729) und die Herausgabe der History of Japan — Johann Caspar Scheuchzer (1702-1729) and the Publication of the History of Japan
Michel, Wolfgang ; Michel-Zaitsu, Wolfgang
Publication info: Asiatische Studien / Études Asiatiques. 64, (1), pp. 101-137, 2010-05. Schweizerische Asiengesellschaft / Verlag Peter Lang
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Table of Contents:
Vorbemerkung // Ein kurzes Leben // Mangel an aktueller Information über Japan // Kaempfers Japanforschung und Nachlass // Aufarbeitung der Japanliteratur // Scheuchzers Umgang mit Kaempfers Text // Bilder einer fremden Welt // Scheuchzers Beitrag zur Kartographie Japans // Scheuchzers Verdienste um Kaempfers Erbe // Bibliographie //
Vorbemerkung // Ein kurzes Leben // Mangel an aktueller Information über Japan // Kaempfers Japanforschung und Nachlass // Aufarbeitung der Japanliteratur // Scheuchzers Umgang mit Kaempfers Text // Bilder einer fremden Welt // Scheuchzers Beitrag zur Kartographie Japans // Scheuchzers Verdienste um Kaempfers Erbe // Bibliographie //
5.
Article
Kyushu Univ. Production Kyushu Univ. Production
Cover image of Medizin, Heilmittel und Pflanzenkunde im euro-japanischen Kulturaustausch des 17. Jahrhunderts — 17世紀の日欧文化交流における医学、医薬品及び植物学
Michel, Wolfgang ; Michel-Zaitsu, Wolfgang
Publication info: Hōrin - Vergleichende Studien zur japanischen Kultur. 16, pp. 19-34, 2010-05. EKO Haus der Japanischen Kultur, Düsseldorf
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Abstract: This study presents a detailed analysis of the introduction of Western medicine into 17th century Japan and its impact on allied sciences, especially botany.
6.
Book
Kyushu Univ. Production Kyushu Univ. Production
Cover image of Der Ost-Indischen und angrenzenden Königreiche vornehmste Seltenheiten betreffende kurze Erläuterung : Neue Funde zum Leben und Werk des Leipziger Chirurgen und Handelsmanns Caspar Schamberger (1623-1706) — 東インドと隣接諸王国における珍奇なものに関する略説」 ー ライプツィッヒの外科医兼商人カスパル・シャムベルゲルの生涯と業績に関する新発見  ー 
Michel, Wolfgang ; Michel-Zaitsu, Wolfgang
Publication info: Der Ost-Indischen und angrenzenden Königreiche, vornehmste Seltenheiten betreffende kurze Erläuterung : Neue Funde zum Leben und Werk des Leipziger Chirurgen und Handelsmanns Caspar Schamberger (1623-1706).. 2010-03. Faculty of Languages and Cultures
Series: The Faculty of Languages and Cultures Library; 1
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Abstract: This book presents a newly discovered text of which only one copy has survived in the Dresden State Art Collections (Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden, Münzkabinett). It was dedicated to the Duke of Saxony Johann Georg III. and published in 1686 as a private print under the title "Short explanation of the most prominent rarities in East India and the neighbouring kingdoms". The author Caspar Schamberger (1623-1706) had worked in Asia for twelve years as a surgeon on VOC ships and in Dutch trading posts. He is known as the "father" of the first fully-fledged Western-style medical school in Japan. His text describes fruits, plants, animals, ethnic groups, coins etc. from Persia to Japan including the Khoikhoi (Khoisan) in Southern Africa. This is one of the earliest Western accounts of these matters based on observations made during the late 1640s and 1650s. The extensive commentary (126 pages) gives an outline of Schamberger's life presenting numerous new information on his activities after his return to Leipzig in 1658. Schamberger's descriptions are analysed in detail within the context of similar accounts of nine contemporary German travellers: Caspar Schmalkalden, Zacharias Wagener, Heinrich Muche, Johann Wilhelm Vogel, Elias Hesse, Albrecht Herport, George Meister, Andreas Cleyer, Engelbert Kaempfer. Forty-six illustrations selected from Western and Japanese sources proviede the iconographic background. Read more
7.
Other
Kyushu Univ. Production Kyushu Univ. Production
Cover image of 久保記念館:日本初の医学博物館 — The Kubo-Memorial-Building: Japan's First Museum for the History of Medicine
Michel, Wolfgang ; Michel-Zaitsu, Wolfgang
Publication info: 2009-05-01. Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University
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8.
Book
Kyushu Univ. Production Kyushu Univ. Production
Cover image of 史料と人物 I (中津市歴史民俗資料館分館医家史料館叢書 7) — Source Material and Personalities I (Nakatsu Municipal Museum for History and Folklore - Medical Archive Series No 7)
Michel, Wolfgang; Michel-Zaitsu, Wolfgang; Tomida, Shuji ... [et al.]
Publication info: 2008-03-27. Board of Education, City of Nakatsu — Nakatsu Municipal Museum for History and Folklore
Series: 中津市歴史民俗資料館分館医家史料館叢書 7
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Table of Contents:
Shûji TOMIDA: On the Yakata-Family Materials (Yabakei, City of Nakatsu). // Akihide OSHIMA: The Yakata-Family and Kuranari Ryûsho // Yôichi YOSHIDA: Medical Treatment in the Yabakei Area During the Meiji Period. // Makoto HOSHINA: The Manuscript Shigoto zakkiroku ("Work Miscellanea") of Oe Genmei. // Shinya KOGA: On Two Matteo Ricci-Style Maps kept by the Murakami Medical Archive. // Tomita HOSODA: The Medical Manuscripts Rokusô Gensui i-an (Medical Proposals by Gensui) and Kaku-shi shôji (Diagnosis and Treatment of Mr. Kaku) Written by Murakami Gensui. //
Shûji TOMIDA: On the Yakata-Family Materials (Yabakei, City of Nakatsu). // Akihide OSHIMA: The Yakata-Family and Kuranari Ryûsho // Yôichi YOSHIDA: Medical Treatment in the Yabakei Area During the Meiji Period. // Makoto HOSHINA: The Manuscript Shigoto zakkiroku ("Work Miscellanea") of Oe Genmei. // Shinya KOGA: On Two Matteo Ricci-Style Maps kept by the Murakami Medical Archive. // Tomita HOSODA: The Medical Manuscripts Rokusô Gensui i-an (Medical Proposals by Gensui) and Kaku-shi shôji (Diagnosis and Treatment of Mr. Kaku) Written by Murakami Gensui. //
9.
Book
Kyushu Univ. Production Kyushu Univ. Production
Cover image of 慶安三、四年の日本における出島商館医シャムベルゲルの活動及び初期カスパル流外科について — On Caspar Schamberger's Activities in Japan (1650/51) and Early Caspar-Style Surgery
Michel, Wolfgang ; Michel-Zaitsu, Wolfgang
Publication info: Languages and Cultures Series. 18, 2008-03-19. Faculty of Languages and Cultures, Kyushu University
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Abstract: 序文:   カスパル・シャムベルゲル(Caspar Schamberger, 1623-1706)は、いわゆる「カスパル流外科の父」として日本の医学史上最も重要な人物の一人である。カスパル流外科はキリスト教の世紀にイベリア半島の宣教師によってもたらされた「南蛮流外科」に続く「紅毛流外科」の最初の流派であり、その伝習は19世紀の開国にいたるまで確認できる。1649年から1651年まで日本に滞在し、オランダ東インド会社に勤務していたカスパルは、自分が後世に与えた影響を決して知ることはなかった。出島商館の業務日誌やその他の文書は、彼のような外科医の活動について所々で触れてはいても、たいていは単に「chirurgijn」とだけ記されている。本来なら彼の名は世に知られることはなかっただろう。しかし1649年、特使アンドリース・フリーセ(Andries Friese / Frisius )とともに江戸へ行き、徳川家光の謁見を待っている時、思いがけないことが起こる。シャムベルゲルと使節団の仲間3人は、使節団が長崎へ戻ることになっても、しばらく江戸に留まるよう幕府側から要請された。こうして彼は合計約10ヶ月、通常は閉鎖的な国の政治的中心地に滞在し、病人の治療や日本人医師の指導にあたった。彼は多大な報酬を得て長崎へ戻り、出島商館長の次の江戸参府にも参加した。そして1651年秋には日本を離れている。 様々な動きと要素が重なり、シャムベルゲルは幕府の関係者の注目するところとなった。彼によって引き起こされた西洋医術に対する関心は、その後も衰えることはなく、継続的な日蘭医学交流へと発展し、薬学、本草学、植物学などの関連分野にも広がるようになった。常に現場に立ち会っていた出島商館の阿蘭陀通詞たちも、商談とは大きく異なるやりとりに強い影響を受け、オランダ語の学習のみならず西洋を見る目も次第に変わり、やがて通詞出身の学者が登場するようになった。杉田玄白は回想録『蘭学事始』で「紅毛カスハル」に言及しているが、江戸蘭学への偏り及び情報不足のためか、彼はカスパルの役割をあまり認識していなかった。 「又古来「カスパル」流といふ外科あり。これは寛永二十年、南部山田浦へ漂流ありし阿蘭陀船の人数の内、江戸へ召し呼ばれたる中に、「カスパル」某といふ外科あり。三四年留置れ、その療法を学せられし者もありしが、追々長崎へ御送りのよし。江戸並に長崎にても、正保の頃、此「カスパル」より伝来の療法ありしを、詳らかなる事を不知ども、後に「カスパル」流と唱ふる事と申事に哉。又別に「カスパル」姓の外科渡来のこともありしか。」 今日の豊富な史料を踏まえながら江戸期全体の流れを見つめると、シャムベルゲルは蘭学の種を蒔いた人物であるとの位置づけにいたる。 1980年代末頃、南部ドイツのクリストフ・アルノルトが1672年に発表した『三大王国、日本、シャム、朝鮮』という本の注釈の中で、それまで不明だったシャムベルゲルの出生地及び帰国後の様子を示す記述を発見した筆者は、日本医史学会の蒲原宏氏、酒井シヅ氏、故宗田一氏、故中西啓氏、故鹿子木敏範氏などが寄せて下さった強い関心に刺激され、東西両洋におけるシャムベルゲルの活動を追究する決心をした。その成果は一連の論文及びドイツで出版された本として発表することができたが、その後江戸時代全般にわたる調査により、紅毛流外科の原点であるシャムベルゲルの教えを資料的に、より詳細に裏付けることが可能になってきた。本冊子では、ヨーロッパでの各種出来事、カスパル以降の日本における動きや紅毛流外科の発展などを除外し、慶安3・4年におけるシャムベルゲルの活動とその関連史料に的をしぼることにする。 医薬学関連の17世紀の文書の多くは、後世により写された形でしか伝わっていない。書写者が文章の一部を省いたり、別の資料を追加したりすることは決して珍しくない。史料名も様々であり、『国書総目録』に集録されているものはごく一部に過ぎないので、数多くの写本を見ることが不可欠である。それにしても、一つの文書の本来の姿を再構築するのは困難を極め、大まかな姿しか描写しかできない場合もある。 シャムベルゲルの日本滞在中、猪股伝兵衛などの通詞が作成した報告は例外ではない。当時の姿を明白に示しているのは、現存史料のほんの一部である。その中でとりわけ「阿蘭陀外科医方秘伝」は重要であり、その他の写本群を整理する鍵にもなる。この史料の発見者宗田一氏のお陰で所有者の佐藤文比古氏からコピー及び利用の許可をいただき、宗田氏が1980年に発表した先駆的な論文「カスパルの江戸での伝習について — 阿蘭陀外科医方秘伝の紹介」をもとに、蘭文史料と和文史料と照らし合わせながらさらなる分析成果を発表したが、文章の紹介は常に断片的な引用に過ぎなかった。その後、佐藤氏も宗田氏もこの世を去り、「阿蘭陀外科医方秘伝」の原本も、宗田氏蔵の写しも行方不明となり、現存するのは筆者のコピーのみとなった。本冊子のページ数には多少の余裕を与えられたので、今後の研究に役立つようにとの願いを込め、「阿蘭陀外科医方秘伝」全文及びその他の貴重な史料を掲載することにした。 Read more
10.
Article
Kyushu Univ. Production Kyushu Univ. Production
Cover image of 吉雄元吉 : 忘れられた蘭学者の生涯と著作について — Yoshio Genkitsu : Life and Works of a Forgotten Scholar of
Michel, Wolfgang ; Michel-Zaitsu, Wolfgang
Publication info: Studies in Languages and Cultures. 23, pp. 89-109, 2008-02-23. Kyushu University, Faculty of Languages and Cultures
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Abstract: Yoshio Genkitsu practiced and taught medicine for at least two decades with great success. In a diary entry dated March 1790, Sugita Gempaku refers to him as “Shian-sensei”, indicating an equal footing between these two scholars of “Dutch Studies” (rangaku). Nevertheless, little is known about Yoshio Genkitsu, alias Shian, who settled in Kyoto around 1799 and started one of the earliest private “Dutch Studies” schools in the Kinki region. Since Ôtsuki Joden included Yoshio in his “Chronological Table of Western Studies” (Nihon Yôgaku nenpyô) in 1877, only a few minor discoveries have been reported. Based on sources listed by Ôtsuki and “The History of Medicine in Kyoto” (Kyôto igaku-shi, 1980), as well as manuscripts recently discovered by the author, this study aims at a more detailed and comprehensive description of Yoshio's teachings and writings. The name of Yoshio's school, Rikugadô, taken from a classical poem in the “Book of Odes“ (Shijing, Liao e) that laments parents left behind far away, as well as an example of a medical treatment given in his manuscript “Surgical Tradition of the Rikuga-Hall” (Rikugadô geka densho), suggest that he was born in Kyushu. Family ties to Yoshio Kôgyû, the renowned pioneer of “Dutch Studies” in Nagasaki, however, cannot be verified. Yoshio Genkitsu taught Dutch reading and writing using a copy of a manuscript written in 1785 by Maeno Ryôtaku, who was instrumental in the epoch-making translation of Kulmus's “Anatomical Tables” and might well have been his language teacher. At an early stage of his career, Yoshio also received instruction from an unidentified European surgeon at the Dutch trading post at Dejima. By 1822, he had become famous enough to be included in Kyoto's Who's Who, “Heian Personalities” (Heian Jimbutsu shi). As was customary in many private schools at that time, Yoshio's teachings were recorded by his students, six of whom left their names in related manuscripts. These writings show that he was not at all a blind adherent to Western ideas. The occasional use of a Chinese alias (Teibi) and manuscript titles such as “Medical Words from Shrike Tongues” (Gekizetsu iden) show his profound classical education, as well as a certain dislike for Dutch sounds. Nevertheless, he taught language using Maeno's “Translation Aids” (Oranda yakusen), an outstanding manuscript compiled on the basis of Dutch teaching materials such as Barend Hakvoord's “Opregt onderwys in de letter-konst” and Willem Bartjens' “De vernieuwe cyfferinge”. Here we find Maeno's unique translation technique developed for Dutch texts, a short glossary, basic Dutch expressions, and several types of letters, ligatures, and other useful information. Among the extant medical manuscripts, “The Book on Anomalies” (Seiheki kôhen) is an ambitious and historically very early attempt to understand Western humoral pathology. The use of Dutch terms such as “zeymig vocht” (viscid humidity), “zuuren der vogt” (acidity of humidity) , and “alcalinius” (alkali) points to a modernized version containing the iatrochemical concepts of Franciscus Sylvius and Herman Boerhaave. Yoshio's surgery begins with the treatment of “swellings” (ulcers, fistulas, abscesses, tumors, etc.) combining Chinese nomenclature with Western treatment methods. “Surgical Tradition of the Rikuga-Hall” (Rikugadô geka densho) presents dozens of Western pharmaceuticals such as Aqua Mercurialis, Tinctura Myhrrae, Mel Rosarum, Theriaca, Emplastrum Diapalmae, Salpeter, Petra Cananor, and Sal Ammoniacis. The scope of their application exceeds the established usage of plasters and ointments for “swellings” and wounds. Yoshio uses Sal Ammoniacis, for example, with success in more than 100 cases of epileptic seizures. Before starting surgical treatment, he demands careful preparation of the necessary medicaments and instruments (scissors, knives, needles, cauter irons, syringes, etc.), and even describes in detail an operation on cheilognathopalatoschisis. Several of Yoshio's handwritten texts dealing with oils, plasters, ointments, tinctures, and syrups are translated excerpts from European books. The most advanced manuscript, “Excerpts on Liquid Medicines from the Far West” (Ensei kisui bassui), gives the name of each medicament in Latin, and describes its production and usage. Yoshio talks about his own experiences, discusses Japanese substitutes, and accepts or refutes given usages of medicaments. In the case of Mel Rosarum (rose honey), he even makes a blunt attack on the revered Yoshio Kôgyû. Rooted deeply in the world of Chinese classics while studying Western medicine from an independent perspective, combining tradition, observation, and experience without much respect for great names, Yoshio Genkitsu must have been a somewhat difficult character. Perhaps this is why we do not find more traces of interactions with his colleagues in “Dutch Studies”, where he deserves a much more prominent place. Read more

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