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1.
Thesis/Dissertation
Kyushu Univ. Production Kyushu Univ. Production
Cover image of 組み立て方式遮音壁の性能評価に関する研究 — A Study on the Performance Evaluation of an Assembled Noise Barrier
堀内, 章司 ; Horiuchi, Takashi
Academic Year Conferred: 2008
Conferring University: Kyushu University
Degree: DOCTOR OF DESIGN
Degree Type: Doctoral Degree
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Abstract: Noise barriers are used to suppress road traffic noise. The barriers are assembled on the roadside mostly from divided panels. The noise-shielding performance of the barrier depends on the panels. There are three problems of existing noise barriers. First of all, the acoustic performance of panels depends on the amount of sound transmission loss. It is common that the noise-shielding performance is measured in reverberation rooms by filling slits between panels. On the other hand, transparent noise barriers are often made of polycarbonate plate (5 mm thick). Its stiffness rigidity is weak and sound transmission loss is low. If a high barrier is used, radiation (sound transmission) from panels will likely occur. Secondly, panels must be set up without slits to make the noise barrier perform properly. However, the slits between panels are not filled and sound leaks from the slits. Thirdly, the workers are not acoustics specialists, and so may construct the noise barrier while ignoring acoustic performance. This paper focuses on the main factors that degrade the performance of the assembled noise barrier: a) leak from slits and b) radiation from panels. This paper describes field work, numerical analysis, acoustic scale model experiments on two main performance degradation factors, and research on noise barriers. The structure of this paper is as follows. Chapter 1 explains the background and organization of this paper. Chapter 2 explains the field work of the noise barrier set up along a roadside. This chapter considers the relation between slit and acoustic performance of the constructed noise barrier. Chapter 3 explains the 2D-numerical analysis method using a) the Boundary Element Method (BEM), and b) the coupled BEM and Finite Element Method (FEM). Chapter 4 calculates the insertion loss of a rigid barrier with slits by using 2D-BEM. The performance of the noise barrier with slits is evaluated. Chapter 5 calculates the insertion loss of the noise barrier due to sound radiated from the panels and sound leaked from slits. It also shows the validity of the numerical analysis results by an acoustic scale model experiment. Lastly, it describes an example of panel selection based on the results obtained from the numerical analyses as a trial improving method against performance deterioration caused by sound radiated from panels. Chapter 6 summarizes each chapter and future plans. Read more
2.
Thesis/Dissertation
Kyushu Univ. Production Kyushu Univ. Production
Cover image of 大臼歯の萌出と石灰化に関する研究
平野, 克枝 ; Hirano, Katsue
Academic Year Conferred: 2009
Conferring University: Kyushu University
Degree: DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY (Dental Science)
Degree Type: Doctoral Degree
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Abstract: 本研究は,大臼歯の萌出と石灰化に関するものである。第一章では「咬合の鍵」である第一大臼歯に着目し,その石灰化と萌出の左右差について検討を行った。また第二章では,第二大臼歯の石灰化遅延と第一大臼歯との関連について検討を行った。いずれも,1998年~2006年の9年間に九州大学病院小児歯科を受診し,パノラマエックス線写真上で上下顎とも両側の第二乳臼歯が完全萌出している小児476名を対象とした。資料はパノラマX線写真のみとし,今回独自に設定した萌出位置の判定基準と,Gleiser & Huntが設定した石灰化段階を指標に解析を行った。歯胚位置の左右差は,萌出の促進あるいは遅延が片側性に生じたものといえる。また,歯の萌出は歯根の石灰化とともに進行していくことから,一般に萌出の遅れは石灰化の遅れに起因すると考えられている。第一章より,第一大臼歯の歯胚位置の左右差は全体の13.2%で認められ,最も差が認められたのは萌出期である6歳の21.3%であった。しかし第一大臼歯の石灰化の左右差は全体の7.4%に過ぎず,最も差が認められたのは同じく萌出期の6歳で12.4%であった。この結果は,第一大臼歯の萌出遅延は,石灰化遅延以外の要因によっても生じうることを示唆している。本研究ではその要因を明らかにすることはできなかった。しかし今回の結果から,たとえ第一大臼歯歯胚の石灰化に左右差が認められない場合であっても,左右どちらかの萌出が遅延する可能性を念頭に,経過観察を行う必要があるといえる。また,萌出位置に左右差を認めた年齢は上顎では8歳まで,下顎では7歳までであった。小児歯科臨床では 第一大臼歯の萌出が片側性に遅延し,位置に左右差が認められる症例をしばしば経験する。その原因が臨床的に特定できない場合,病的な遅延か,あるいは一過性の遅延かの判断は難しい。明らかな異常所見を認めない症例を対象とした本研究結果から,上顎では9歳まで,下顎では8歳までを経過観察の時期とし,その時点で左右差が解消されない場合は,積極的な萌出誘導も検討するという基準を提示することができた。第二章より,第二大臼歯の石灰化遅延は,上顎で3.9%,下顎で2.0%,全体で4.6%の症例で認められることが明らかとなった。このうち,第一大臼歯にも萌出や石灰化の左右差が認められるものは半数であった。これまで第一大臼歯の石灰化遅延の頻度に関してはいくつか報告がなされてきたが,第二大臼歯に関しては不明であり,本研究で得られた第二大臼歯の石灰化遅延の発生頻度は,第一大臼歯のそれと近似していた。以上のことより,同じ大臼歯群である第一大臼歯と第二大臼歯の石灰化遅延歯ほぼ同じ頻度で発生すると考えられ,両者の間には発生過程で何らかの関連性があることが示唆された。 Read more
3.
Thesis/Dissertation
Kyushu Univ. Production Kyushu Univ. Production
Cover image of A Study on Non-Photorealistic Rendering Technique for Visualization of Dyeing Cloth — 布染色系ノンフォトリアリスティックレンダリングに関する研究
森本, 有紀 ; Morimoto, Yuki
Academic Year Conferred: 2007
Conferring University: Kyushu University
Degree: DOCTOR OF DESIGN
Degree Type: Doctoral Degree
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Abstract: コンピュータグラフィックス(Computer Graphics: CG)の研究分野ではこれまでに写実的な表現ばかりでなく、非写実的な表現(Non-Photorealistic Rendering: NPR)も様々な目的に応じて研究されている。このNPRでは水墨画や水彩画、油絵などの絵画調表現が行われている。染め物を題材とした研究としては2004年にろうけつ染めの表現手法が提案されているのみである。本研究は、NPRにおいて画材としての布染色モデルを確立することを目的としている。 布への染料拡散の視覚的特長としては糸毎に現れるすじや場所は隣り合っていても色の濃淡がまだらに現れているものなどがあげられる。これらは糸内での拡散が糸の材質や縒り方、繊維の方向などによって影響を受けるために起こると考えられる。このように様々な物理的要因によって染色の視覚的特長が引き起こされている。本研究では実際の染色過程、染色技法、布の織構造などの機能を、appearanceベース、physicsベース、そして染色理論ベースの三つの異なるモデルとして提案する。appearanceベースのモデルでは、布繊維内での染料量をセルオートマトンによって時間軸に沿って平均化していくことによって拡散のシミュレーションをしている。このモデルはシンプルであるため、比較的処理が高速にできるという特徴がある。physicsベースのモデルでは織布中での染料の拡散をFickの法則に基づき表現している。更にphysicsベースによるモデルを染色理論に基づきパラメータ化したモデルでは、織構造や染料の種類などが染料の拡散に影響を与えるモデルへと発展している。このモデルでは布内のパラメータとして繊維の空隙率を表した多孔度や繊維のねじれを表す屈曲度などを用いており、このようなパラメータを操作することによって染色の視覚的特徴を表現することができる。他に、染色表現に重要な因子として、布の織り構造、布の一部に糊や蝋を置いたり糸で縛ったりすることによって染料の拡散を防ぐことで模様を表現する防染技法、染料の布への吸着などの要素をモデル化する方法を提案している。実験結果によると本研究で提案する染料拡散手法が模様を生成するための染色技法を柔軟に考慮できることができることがわかる。 Read more
4.
Thesis/Dissertation
Kyushu Univ. Production Kyushu Univ. Production
Cover image of Ergonomics of human land locomotion with load carriage — 重量負荷を用いたヒトの陸上移動運動に関する人間工学的研究
安陪, 大治郎 ; Abe, Daijiro
Academic Year Conferred: 2007
Conferring University: Kyushu University
Degree: DOCTOR OF DESIGN
Degree Type: Doctoral Degree
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Abstract: 重量物を運搬歩行するときのエネルギーコスト(Cw; ml/kg/meter)を単位距離当たりで評価した場合、エネルギーコストは必ずしも運搬物の重量に比例して増大するわけではなく、体重の約10-20%程度の重量が代謝に反映されない場合があり、これまでそのような現象はfree-rideと呼ばれてきた。本研究の前半部では、free-rideの発生メカニズム解明のために、負荷重量、付加部位、歩行速度、傾斜の影響について検討した。また、ランニングでもfree-rideが観察できるかどうかについては諸説ある。ランニングでは重量物を身体に付加することによって、下肢筋群の筋・腱複合体が適度に引き伸ばされ、「弾性エネルギー」と呼ばれるバネ作用の恩恵を受けることが出来る。つまり重量物を身体に付けてランニングすると、弾性エネルギーをより多く利用できるため、無負荷の場合に比べて走行中のエネルギーコストが低下し、結果的にfree-rideが発生するという説と、重量物による下肢筋群への過剰負担のために、free-rideは発生しないとする説が対立していた。そこで本研究の後半部では、筋電図法を用いてランニング中の弾性エネルギー利用度を測定する方法を確立すると共に、ランニングにおけるfree-rideの有無とメカニズムについて検討した。本研究で得られた主な結果は、1) free-rideは背中に重量物を配置し、低速度で歩行した場合に観察された。2) 歩行において最もfree-ride効果が高いのは、体重の15%に相当する重量物を背中に配置した場合であった。3) 背中の上部と下部に体重の15%相当の重量物を配置した場合、60-80 m/minで後背上部に配置した方が下部に配置した場合に比べて有意にCw値が低かった。4) ランニングでもfree-rideを観察することができた。5)弾性エネルギーの再利用がエネルギーコストと有意な負相関を示した。これらの結果から、歩行におけるfree-rideは、身体重心と付加重量物の相対的位置関係に起因する「身体重心周りの回転トルク」によって発生するが、同時に重量負荷による下肢への過剰負担によってその効果は漸減し、およそ80m/min付近で消滅すると結論した。また、本研究では平地および下り坂ランニングにおいてfree-rideが観察できることを確認した。このメカニズムは重心周りの回転トルクではなく、弾性エネルギーの再利用に起因することが示唆された。 Read more
5.
Thesis/Dissertation
Kyushu Univ. Production Kyushu Univ. Production
Cover image of 映像編集におけるショット間の継時的群化の要因 — The Factor of Grouping Shots in Time Series about Movie Editing
井上, 貢一 ; Inoue, Koichi
Academic Year Conferred: 2007
Conferring University: Kyushu University
Degree: DOCTOR OF DESIGN
Degree Type: Doctoral Degree
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Abstract: 本論文は、映像情報のデザインという観点から、ショット(映像断片)の「つながり」、すなわち「継時的群化」について、その要因を整理するとともに、主要な要因に関する実験的な検証を行ったものである。 その結果、解釈のレベルにおけるショット間の継時的群化に関する議論は、大きく以下の3点に集約された。1)情報量を小さくするようなショットの構成が認知的負荷を下げ、ショット間の「つながり」に貢献すること。2)「他動詞」の喚起を伴う「アクションとリアクション」の接続がショット間の関係理解(情報処理)を効率化すること。3)映像上に現れる「人・顔(目)・手」といった素材が、「他動詞」を喚起する契機として重要であること。 先行ショットの文脈効果(プライミング)によって後続ショットの範列を制限し、エントロピーを下げること、そして、後続ショットを予測の範囲内に送りだすことで結果的に情報量を下げること。ショット間の継時的群化には、認知的負荷の少ない、より簡潔な解釈を可能にするショット間の構成が重要であることがわかった。 特に、「古典的ハリウッド」における編集の基本といわれる「アクションとリアクション」の構成は、因果印象という効率的な解釈を生起させる点で、ショット間の継時的群化に貢献する重要な要因のひとつであると考えられる。 「見る」、「撃つ」、「照らす」は 後続ショットを目的語としてつながり、「開ける」、「出す」、「振る」などはその行為を契機として後続の出来事に結びつく。ショット間に強固なつながりの印象を与える「アクションとリアクション」の関係には、そのような「他動詞」の喚起が不可欠である。そして、そのためには、人間の顔(目)や手が生み出す「(意識の)動き」を映像化することが重要な要件となる。 そこに「人」がいて「(意識の)動き」がある。この最も日常的な現象の映像化が、「因果印象」という、やはり最も日常的な時空間の「つながり」に貢献する。 Read more
6.
Thesis/Dissertation
Kyushu Univ. Production Kyushu Univ. Production
Cover image of A Study on the Design Development of Electric Fan for Home Use in Japan — 我が国における家庭用電気扇風機のデザインの変遷に関する研究
平野, 聖 ; Hirano, Kiyoshi
Academic Year Conferred: 2007
Conferring University: Kyushu University
Degree: DOCTOR OF DESIGN
Degree Type: Doctoral Degree
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Abstract: During the Meiji era, the importation of electric fans from advanced nations was the major factor behind the rise in the popularity of fans for domestic use. However, in contrast to the sizable demand for ceiling fans in Europe and America, the Japanese much preferred the desktop fan and so design development concentrated on this style of fan. The high skill level of Japanese craftsmen meant that newly imported techniques for fan production were quickly absorbed and utilized in domestic production. In the Taisho Era and the prewar days of the Showa, Japan adopted production techniques for electric fans from more advanced countries and thus the now famous enterprise of fan mass-production in Japan had begun.  After the Great Kanto Earthquake, people came to realize that electricity was safe. At the same time, due to competition among firms, the price of home electronics fell dramatically. With the emergence of a new middle class and their increased purchasing power a home electronics boom ensued. Electric fans had always been objects of desire, but they were now affordable and became very popular with this new group of consumers. From the Meiji era to this time, the basic design of electric fans included the following four elements: a black color scheme, a four-blade propeller, a guard and a fan head rotation function. However, during the boom period, the Etora, a wide three-blade propeller fan, was invented. From this time, the electric fan guards started to be designed independently. Guard design was used to differentiate the products of competing companies and to freshen up the look of existing fans at times of model change. After World War II, electric fans are also equivalent to the general citizen and spread widely until the 50's end. Changes in postwar fans included the adoption of wide three-blade propellers (the Etora) and a streamlining of form.The key function added during the postwar period was neck expansion. Prewar fans were only available in black, but under the influence of the U.S. and the introduction of plastic, fans of varying color were available after the war. The guard itself came to be a focus of the advertising, adding charm and elegance to the base product. Because the guard was central to creating a good impression with consumers, changes in the design of the guard led to changes in the design of electric fans. Read more
7.
Thesis/Dissertation
Kyushu Univ. Production Kyushu Univ. Production
Cover image of Research on design evaluation system that pays attention to value of Kansei — 感性価値に着目したデザイン評価システム構築に関する研究
曽我部, 春香 ; Sogabe, Haruka
Academic Year Conferred: 2008
Conferring University: Kyushu University
Degree: DOCTOR OF DESIGN
Degree Type: Doctoral Degree by Thesis Only
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8.
Thesis/Dissertation
Kyushu Univ. Production Kyushu Univ. Production
Cover image of A Study on the Classification of Moving Units for Facial Expression Robot : Proposal of Moving-Unit for Animatronics — 顔表情ロボットにおける駆動ユニットの分類に関する研究 : アニマトロニクスのためのムービングユニットの提案
權, 泰錫 ; Kwon, Taisuck
Academic Year Conferred: 2008
Conferring University: Kyushu University
Degree: DOCTOR OF DESIGN
Degree Type: Doctoral Degree
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Abstract: This paper regards the study on the facial expression of animatronics, the process of making and operating the entertainment robots that look like real people or animals, used in films or theme parks. To realize the animatronics with rich facial expressions like human beings by efficiently controlling the smaller number of moving units than former robots, this paper proposes new MU (Moving-Unit) and its description methods, and presents the validity of the MU through the real face as well as the physical and psychological measurements. The moving units and their description methods for the production/control of existing entertainment robots are analyzed and their characteristics are compared with each other. As a result of analysis on the moving units of former facial expression robot, the muscle name, the moving part and the description of motions related with the application of Action Units (AU) have been used in mixture. In this study, an experimentee was asked to express the feelings with 17 AUs. As a result, it was found out that the linking relation of muscles and even a muscle could express multiple AU through the analytical experiment in the moving region of face by the Intensity Differences Method. Based on this result, the MU system was proposed as a new classification of action unit for the facial expression of robot. The MU is the basic unit to express the face and movement of animatronics based on the actuator’s operation in consideration of mechanical muscle structure. The MU is composed of 26 sub MU groups. But, with 19 main MU groups, the expression of 62 AUs expressions for face has become possible. To prove the validity of MU, the moving regions of the experimentee (Model A) and the Robot (Model B) produced through the face of experimentee were compared with each other. As a result, it was found out that the proposed MU were working effectively. For basic facial expressions of Model A, B and C (Facial Muscle Animatronics), the expressional evaluation was carried out by SD method. Through this research, it was found out that, for the physical expression of face technology of robot in the entertainment, its control method with the anticipation of facial expression to some degree could be effective through the real robot production. In the future, the relation between the facial expression and the MU technology should be studied more. Read more
9.
Thesis/Dissertation
Kyushu Univ. Production Kyushu Univ. Production
Cover image of 日本における鉄骨構造建築の導入と発展過程に関する研究 : 官営八幡製鐵所の創設期から昭和初期における工場建築の設計と建設 — A Study on the Introduction and Development process of the Steel structure building in Japan : On the Design and Construction of Factory building in The Imperial Steel Works, Japan (The Japanese Government-controlled Yawata Steel Works )from the Period of the Foundation to the early Showa era
開田, 一博 ; Hirakida, Kazuhiro
Academic Year Conferred: 2008
Conferring University: Kyushu University
Degree: DOCTOR OF DESIGN
Degree Type: Doctoral Degree by Thesis Only
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Abstract: This paper clarifies the developmental process of steel structure building in The Imperial Steel Works, Japan. What I wish to demonstrate here is that the development of steel structure building in Japan stems from some factors as follows: For one thing, there was a background which enabled The Works to construct the steel framed factory at the beginning of operation. What is more, there was the fact that the steel structure construction technology had been introduced from Germany, and the steel structure design technology from Europe and America. One final point is that a Japanese engineer designed the first domestic steel framed factory and developed the steel structure design technology. In 1901, The Works asked Gutehoffnungshütte, the German company, to design their factory, because of their lack of ability and experience of the steel structure design technology. After this, among the staff, there was an increasing momentum to construct a domestic factory based on their own design with their own steel products. In 1909, "the roll turning factory" was completed as the first domestic one by "Hitoshi Kageyama", a member of The Works staff. It is noteworthy that he designed it at the beginning of his career as a mechanical engineer soon after graduation from university. The enrichment of engineering education in Japanese universities was behind construction of the first domestic factory. As a result of the factory construction, The Works was commissioned to design plants by the military. In 1916, The Works invited a building engineer who had learned the steel structure design technology from a private enterprise to make up for a lack of steel structure design engineers. Since the invited building engineer resigned in 1921, a civil engineer had been taking charge of factory designing in The Works until the early Showa period. All these things clarify some points about the development of steel structure building in Japan as follows. First, the construction of factory by The Works indicated the beginning of large-scale steel frame structure building in Japan. And it was a mechanical engineer who took a leading role in steel framed factory building until completion of the first domestic factory in 1909. Secondly, the designer of the first domestic factory, "Hitoshi Kageyama " was a mechanical engineer .His designing coincided with publication of the leading-edge steel structure design technology in"KENTIKUZASSI"(the journal of architecture and building science) by "Tadahiko Hibi", a civil engineering professor at Kyoto Imperial University. In addition, the fact that the military commissioned designing of plants to The Works as a result of final completion of the first domestic factory, demonstrates that the technology acquired by The Works became widespread as domestic one. Thirdly, The Works invited a private-sector building engineer to entrust the steel structure building design. These facts contributed greatly to the development of steel structure design technology in Japan. Read more
10.
Thesis/Dissertation
Kyushu Univ. Production Kyushu Univ. Production
Cover image of 我が国における中等建築教育の確立に関する基礎的研究 : 大正末、昭和初期の文部省内と建築学会の検討活動を通じて — A Study on the Establishment of Middle Level Education on Architecture in Japan : Through the Activities by the Ministry of Education and Architectural Institute of Japan, the Later Taisho-era and the Early Showa-era
松永, 文雄 ; Matsunaga, Fumio
Academic Year Conferred: 2008
Conferring University: Kyushu University
Degree: DOCTOR OF ENGINEERING
Degree Type: Doctoral Degree
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Abstract: This study attempts to clarify the processes that have been established in Japan for architectural education, and clarifies the overall format demanded by architecture (academically) rather than the actual state of the individual subject, by referring to the discussion (including investigation) undertaken during the deliberations (the process and content) of the editorial committee of the "standard textbooks for industrial schools" that was established within the committee overseeing architecture education in the Ministry of Education at the end of the Taisho era and Architectural Institute of Japan at the beginning of the Showa era. Chapter 1 reports the aims and methods of this study, describes the uniqueness of the study as well as the inevitability of a new education system as demanded by technological developments and social transformations, and presents an overview of the spread of this technology. Chapter 2 presents the need to generalize cutting edge technology to respond to the demands of society. Typical textbooks published from the beginning to the end of the Meiji era are examined, and the intentions for the publication of these books are elicited. The analysis of statistical material presented in Chapter 3 shows that practical-based education numerically holds the absolute majority in practice, and demonstrates the urgent need for reform of the methods for teaching at a fixed level of education even from the demands of this practical-based education. Chapter 4 summarizes the various subject names in architecture through the activities of reference material of committees in the Ministry of Education from the changes in the industrial schools regulations up to then, and clarifies the processes in relation to current subjects. Chapter 5 clarifies the content of the deliberations and specific specialist subjects. (corresponding to the detailed table of contents of the standard textbooks) Chapter 6 clarifies the publication status, content and authors of books that conform to the content of the "standard textbooks" compiled by the Architectural Institute of Japan. Finally, the results of this research are related to current architectural education. The standard textbooks proposed by the Architectural Institute of Japan are assumed to be used in industrial schools, and therefore, have the prerequisite of arranging (duration and timing) each subject within a predetermined framework that balances general and specialist subjects in terms of time. It is therefore necessary to plan for equal measures of not only each individual subject but also the various architectural specialist fields ranging from the so-called soft subjects to hard subjects, and to reference the point and format of understanding the existence of each subject. Read more