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Kyushu Univ. Production Kyushu Univ. Production
Cover image of 第四十二回中央図書館貴重文物展観目録
九州大学附属図書館中央図書館 ; Kyushu University Central Library
Publication info: Library Exhibition. pp. 1-33, 2001-05-10.
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Kyushu Univ. Production Kyushu Univ. Production
Cover image of 近世後期日本における志筑忠雄訳『鎖国論』の受容 — Acceptance of “Sakoku-ron” translated by Shizuki Tadao in last part of early modern times Japan
大島, 明秀 ; Oshima, Akihide
Publication info: 洋学. 14, pp. 1-32, 2006-03-00. 洋学史学会
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Abstract: 近世を「鎖国」ではなく、「海禁」政策と東アジアの華夷秩序から捉え直さなければならないとする近年の「鎖国」研究の成果を踏まえ、本稿は「鎖国」を言説として捉え、どのように日本で「鎖国」言説が形成されたのかを追究した試みを行った。資料として用いたのは、日本において「鎖国」という言葉の誕生の契機となったケンペル原著、志筑忠雄訳『鎖国論』写本(一八〇一年)であり、その受容を見ていった。 その結果、『鎖国論』は近世日本で普及し、主に非政策決定者を中心に次のような5通りに読まれ流布したことが判明した。(1)天文学的知識の情報源として(2)歴史資料として(3)海外の日本観を知るための情報源としての紹介(4)海外の日本賛美的文献としての紹介(5)万国における日本の優位性を説く典拠として、である。 さらに、百年以上古い情報源であった『鎖国論』が上記利用者に用いられた背景としては以下の4点を指摘した。(A)『鎖国論』が蘭書(事実性が高い)といいえたこと、(B)異国の外圧を受けている日本の状況が『鎖国論』に描かれた「島原の乱」と酷似していること、(C)「蒙古襲来」・「島原の乱」・「濱田兄弟」の事例など過去に異国を撃退した事例が掲載されていること、(D)復古主義にとって理想的な「和魂」が満ち溢れた日本が、『鎖国論』に描かれていることである。 『鎖国論』が大いに受容されるに伴い「鎖国」語彙が広まるものの、近世日本を表象する概念としては用いられなかったことを明らかにした。それによって「鎖国」をめぐる一連の問題は、近世ではなく近代以降の問題であることが示唆された。 (The manuscript "Sakoku-ron" was original written by Engelbert Kaempfer, and then translated by Shizuki Tadao in Japan of 1801 and became a source of the word ‘Sakoku’ (National Seclusion). ‘Sakoku’ in Japan, was expressed in the modern period, and was used as a means to seal off the country. "Sakoku-ron" spread and became widely read mainly by intellectuals and wielded great influence in the modern period. However, it has been noted that in previous conventional studies, "Sakoku-ron" as translated by Shizuki Tadao was received as the theoretical authority for ‘Sakoku’ and ‘Kokoku’ (nationalism). Yet, there have been no studies which have investigated in detail how "Sakoku-ron" was received in Japan’s latter period. The main purpose of this paper is to take a detailed look at how "Sakoku-ron" as translated by Shizuki Tadao was accepted, as well as an analysis of the discursive spread of ‘Sakoku’. After the formation of this concept, "Sakoku-ron" was absorbed by writers, scholars and government officials, yet it was not Shizuki Tadao’s translation, rather it was Engelbert Kaempfer’s book that was given precedence. In this context there are five main ways in which Shizuki Tadao’s work was interpreted. The work was taken as a authoritative body in the five following areas: 1. as a source of astronomical knowledge as written by Matsuzaki Kodo a book collector. 2. As historical material used by Shomotsu-bugyo Kondo Seisai. 3. As a source of information to inform Japan’s way of understanding the outside world as described by the writer Ota Nanbo. 4. As a source of information to praise foreigners as commented by the Nationalist Nakayama Umashi. 5. As an authority source of information used to preach Japanese superiority as seen with the Natioanlist Hirata Atsutane. It was through the acceptance of ‘the Hirata school’ that "Sakoku-ron" was accepted between Academics. In other words (1) of astronomical knowledge as Matsuzaki Kodo, A book collector, wrote it down, (2) of a historical document as Shomotsu-bugyo Kondo Seisai, (3) as the source of information to know outlook on Japan of a foreigner as writer Ota Nanbo wrote it down, (4) as Japanese praise theory of a foreigner as Nationalist Nakayama Umashi, (5) as authority to preach Japanese superiority in all countries as Nationalist Hirata Atsutane. "Sakoku-ron" was received between Nationalists in latter half of Japan with accept of the Hirata study of ancient Japanese thought and culture. The following four points are taken as the background for "Sakoku-ron" which has been a source of information for more than 100 years. Firstly, it is possible to say that Dutch books (with a high degree of factuality) were "Sakoku-ron". Secondly external foreign pressure closely resembling the ‘Shimabara uprising’ was used to describe "Sakoku-ron". Thirdly the ‘Mongolia invasion’, ‘Shimabara uprising’ and ‘the Hamada brothers’ have been used as examples to bolster "sakoku-ron". Finally, "Sakoku-ron" was idealized by Japan as ‘Yamato damashii’ to induce reactionism.) Read more