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1.
Grant
Kyushu Univ. Production Kyushu Univ. Production
Cover image of 環境汚染物質の効率的無害化を目指した吸着性光触媒無機シートの開発 — Preparation and Environmental Applications of Paper-like Photocatalyst Composites
北岡 卓也 ; KITAOKA Takuya
Project Year: 2001-2003
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Abstract: Titanium dioxide(TiO_2) photocatalyst has attracted much attention for the effective cleanup of various environmental pollutants. However, its practical application is limited because of the difficulty to deal with small TiO_2 particles. Hence, recent research has been directed at immobilizing TiO_2 powders onto a supporting material. This research provided a lot of practical, interesting results for the preparation and environmental applications of paper-like composites containing TiO_2 and other powder materials which were supported on inorganic fiber matrix. The ceramic fiber/TiO_2 composites were successfully prepared by a papermaking technique with a dual polyelectrolyte system whereby high formability and productivity were achieved. Indoor/atmospheric pollutants and endocrine-disrupting chemical in water were photocatalytically decomposed by the TiO_2 composites under weak UV irradiation. Tailoring the combination of TiO_2 and zeolite adsorbent in the composites accelerated the photodegradation of various pollutants. Catalyst mixture in and void structure of paper composites made a great contribution to the enhancement of photocatalytic efficiency from a practical viewpoint. The porous, flexible and easy-handling fiber/TiO_2 composites would be expected as a promising material with effective photocatalytic performance for environmental applications. Read more
2.
Grant
Kyushu Univ. Production Kyushu Univ. Production
Cover image of DnaAドメインIVを用いた新規抗菌剤の探索開発プロセスの研究 — STUDY ON RATIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF NOVEL ANTIBIOTICS TAGRETING DnaA DOMAIN IV
片山 勉 ; KATAYAMA Tsutomu
Project Year: 2001-2004
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Abstract: To establish rational process for developing novel antibiotics that targets DnaA protein, we analyzed structure-function relationship of the DNA-binding domain of DnaA, DnaA domain IV(DAD-IV). First, we overproduced and purified a truncated DnaA protein that contained only the DAD-IV. We found that DAD-IV sustains specific affinity for DNA and secondary structure by gel-retardation assay and CD analysis. Then we determined the secondary structure in solution of DAD-IV using NMR. Determined structure suggested that DAD-IV contained a three helices-bundled type helix-turn-helix motif. In addition, NMR analysis suggested that interaction sites of DAD-IV with DNA. Finally, we determined crystal structure of a complex of DAD-IV with DNA using X-ray diffraction analysis. Determined structure by this well coincided with the data obtained by NMR and by other biochemical and genetic analysis. Candidates of antibiotics were searched by the method of virtual screening, based on the structure of DAD-IV/DNA complex. Read more
3.
Grant
Kyushu Univ. Production Kyushu Univ. Production
Cover image of アポトーシス抵抗性神経幹細胞の分化・増殖および神経機能再生能への応用に関する研究 — Study of differentiation of apoptosis-resistant nerve stem cells and their application to neuroregeneration
吉田 裕樹 ; YOSHIDA Hiroki
Project Year: 2001-2002
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Abstract: First we examined the development of neurons in Apaf1- and Bc1-XL-doubly knockout embryos. In the doubly-knockout mice, there was accumulation of neurons just as in Apaf1-single knockout embryos. However, differentiation of nerve stem cells into mature neurons was normal in both Apaf1-single and doubly knockout mice. Next we demonstrated BMP2drives the differentiation f nerve stem cells into astrocytes. Practically, BMP2 suppresses the differentiation of stem cells into neurons by the induction of inhibitory HLH factors and the resultant suppression of bHLH transcription factors that favor nerve differentiation. In regeneration of therapies of nerve/spine, it is a serious problem that transplanted stem cells tend to differentiate into astorocytes. Another problem will be the poor viability of transplanted stem cells in the host. Since Apaf1-deficient stem cells are resistant to various apoptotic stimuli while showing normal differentiation into neurons, our results may shed light to the development of novel neuroregenerative therapies by driving the differentiation of apoptosis-resistant stem cells arbitrarily into neurons Read more
4.
Grant
Kyushu Univ. Production Kyushu Univ. Production
Cover image of 民族文化の境界領域に関する文化力学的研究--中国西域少数民族の場合 — Cultural Dynamics of Ethnic Boundaries-a case of minority peoples in Chinese West
丸山 孝一 ; MARUYAMA Koichi
Project Year: 2001-2004
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Abstract: The main purposes of this study are (1) a theoretical study I the cultural dynamics of ethnic boundaries, (2) an empirical and ethnographic study of cultural dynamics among Chinese western minority groups, (3) a realistic understanding of Chinese ethnic relations, (4) a preliminary cross-cultural study on family education that puts stress on the maintenance of traditional ethnic culture, and (5) a study on ethnic relations in the socio-economic change. In the items (1) and (2) above, the cultural dynamics means the reality of ethnic relations in China focusing on the newly developed concept of Zhonghua ideology. We have found that the Zhonghua concept which comprises 56 Chinese ethnic groups has come out as a centripetal force of the Chinese nationalism. On the other hand, some minority groups tend to maintain their traditional ethnic culture which seems to have an opposite centrifugal forces. Concerning the item (3), we concentrated on the field work at the Xibe villages in western Xinjiang and found that this small minority group seems to have been in the process of being absorbed into the dominant Han culture. In the study of item (4), we felt a difficulty of getting data from the private homes under "the guard" of the communist officials. However, this type of study is to be continued. Finally, the item (5) is the most challenging task in contemporary China. We focused our attention on the education of Han language (the standard language) among the minority groups. The government puts more stress on the centralization of the language. This is not necessarily the forced national policy but in the process of socio-economic change, culture of certain minority groups seems to have been assimilated into the dominant Han culture as the case of the Xibe that tends to intermarry more with the Han today. Read more
5.
Grant
Kyushu Univ. Production Kyushu Univ. Production
Cover image of 中南米の民主国家建設における先住民文化運動の役割 — The Role of Indigenous Peoples in Rebuilding Democratic Nations in Latin America
太田 好信 ; OTA Yoshinobu
Project Year: 2001-2003
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Abstract: This research has clarified how the relationships between the state and indigenous peoples have been changing in Latin America : in particular, Guatemala, Mexico, Nicaragua, and Bolivia. Among the four countries in question all four members of the research team have been to Guatemala and investigated the transitional phase in democratization. We found that Guatemala must face the past by remembering what had happened, in order to move forward to the future, rather than forgetting the undeniable atrocity many Mayan peoples have suffered. As part of an effort in reconstructing nation is restitution for the victims of the civil war ; however, it has been subject as usual to political manipulation during 2003. Kozaki and Iijima have investigated the indigenous movements in Mexico, Nicaragua and Bolivia ; the Bolivian case is instructive in a sense that the Bolivian indigenous movements have been mobilized for the purpose of forging a force against the globalization-export of resource to outside. The weakness of indigenous social movements have been historically evident : it becomes easily co-opted by the state power for nationalism. The same has been repeated once again in 2003. All four investigators feel that the role of indigenous politics cannot be ignored even in time of globalization, since it articulates, in a way different from the globalizing powers, the local-something that even the globalizing forces must anchor themselves-and the national and global. It utilizes the local connection as assets rather than constraints. These aspects of indigenous movements need further investigation. Read more
6.
Grant
Kyushu Univ. Production Kyushu Univ. Production
Cover image of ベトナムにおける攪乱をうけたマングローブ林の更新動態の分子集団遺伝学的研究 — Molecular population genetic study on regeneration processes of disturbed mangrove forests in Vietnam
舘田 英典 ; TACHIDA Hidenori
Project Year: 2001-2003
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Abstract: Mangroves are constituent plants of tropical and subtropical intertidal forest communities and they occupy about 200 million ha of areas in the world. In this study, we investigated the ecological systems of Vietnamese mangrove forests which were heavily damaged by the Vietnam War but are now regenerating and analyzed the regenerating process using population genetic approaches. The following results were obtained. 1.An investigation was conducted on Kandelia candel plantations in Namdinh Province, Northern Vietnam to elucidate the influences of stand-age and inundation on carbon accumulation in mangrove soil. We found that carbon accumulation in the soil of a plantation strongly depended upon both stand-age and inundation frequency. 2.We investigated amounts and patterns of genetic variation in mangroves of Vietnam using various markers. For K.candel and Avicennia marina, AFLP and microsatellite markers revealed that there were genetic differentiation between southern and northern populations of the two species. In fact, the extent of genetic differentiation between south and north in K.candel was so large that the two populations seemed to be from two separate species. We also used a chloroplast marker, matK, to investigate genetic differentiation adding one more common species, Lumnitzera racemosa, and obtained similar results as those based on nuclear makers except that little variation was found in L.racemosa. Based on these results, we considered how to recover mangrove ecosystems utilizing mangrove's own regenerating capability. Read more
7.
Grant
Kyushu Univ. Production Kyushu Univ. Production
Cover image of 東南アジア熱帯樹木種の遺伝学的研究のためのDNAデータベース作成 — Internet based DNA database for genetic studies on tropical species from South Eastern Asia
SZMIDT Alfred Edward ; SZMIDT Alfred edward
Project Year: 2001-2003
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Abstract: The purpose of this project was to create an internet-based public database of DNA samples from natural populations of ecologically and economically important forest tree species from Asia. The constructed database contains all information pertinent to taxonomy, geographic origin and type of material etc. It features search and order engine similar to that used by e-commerce companies. The DNA samples stored in the database are distributed at no cost to any non-profit scientist with established credentials willing to pay postage delivery fee. The database is stored on the website maintained by our laboratory : http://genetics.biology.kyushu-u.ac.ip. The number of extant tree species in Asia is vast. Thus, studies of all tree components are neither possible nor they are necessary. We therefore focused on species with greatest ecological and economical significance, which serve as a source of timber, fuel wood, cane or fruit. By now, species fulfilling this condition have been identified in individual countries in Asia. In particular, our effort was focused on the following genera : Bambusa, Calamus, Rhizophora, Dipterocarpus, Shores, and Tectona. Samples were collected in the following countries : Japan, Malaysia, Thailand, China, India, Sri Lanka, Vietnam, Seychelles and Madagascar. For the time being, the constructed database contains more than 2000 samples from more than 200 species of tropical trees from Asia and Madagascar. Recently, through collaboration with Swedish and Russian scientists we obtained a unique collection of samples representing all species of the genus Larix occurring in Asia. The samples are now being entered into our database and will be made available for public access later this year. In the course of the project, three MSc and two BSc programs were completed. Read more
8.
Grant
Kyushu Univ. Production Kyushu Univ. Production
Cover image of 東アジア(中国・朝鮮・日本)における血栓症発症要因の探索と血栓症の治療 — Risk Factors for Asian Thrombophilia
濱崎 直孝 ; HAMASAKI Naotaka
Project Year: 2001-2002
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Abstract: Although the constitutional background of Japanese thrombotic patients has not been well examined, coagulation factor V Leiden is not detected in Japanese patients suffering from thromboses. We have been investigating constitutional predispositions of patients suffering from deep vein thrombosis in the Japanese population. In the present study, we summarize our results of Japanese patients suffering from deep vein thrombosis. A surprisingly high frequency of Japanese patients suffering from deep vein thrombosis have reduced activity in the protein S/protein C anticoagulation system. Reduced activity in the protein S/protein C anticoagulation system was observed in 58% patients with deep vein thrombosis, while reduced activity of antithrombin was noted in 7% patients, a level consistent with the frequency in Caucasian patients. Gene analyses were performed on the factors associated with patients having reduced activities (10-12). Nineteen patients had mutated protein S genes, including 5 patients having protein S_<Tokushima>(K155E), 8 patients had mutated protein C genes, and two patients had mutated antithrombin genes. Our study indicates that the frequency of inherited protein S abnormalities in Japanese patients suffering from deep vein thrombosis is significantly high, ten times higher than the frequency in Caucasian patients, and that abnormality of the protein S/protein C anticoagulation system is a major risk factor for deep vein thrombosis in Japan. It is interesting to note that the frequency of factor V Leiden in Caucasian deep vein thrombosis patients is similar to that of gene mutations of the protein S/protein C anticoagulalion system in Japanese deep vein thrombosis patients. Read more
9.
Grant
Kyushu Univ. Production Kyushu Univ. Production
Cover image of カント哲学における判断と存在の関係について — The Relationship between Judgment and Being in Kant's Philosophy
圓谷 裕二 ; TSUBURAYA Yuji
Project Year: 2001-2003
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Abstract: The aim of this research is to place Kant's theory of judgment in his transcendental philosophy as a whole, and to make clear the important relationship between judgment and being. Most of the past studies of Kant had a tendency to deal with his theory of judgment only in "Transcendental Analytic" as a part of critique of Pure Reason. But this interpretation limited to his epistemology misses the philosophical significance of it. Our research criticizes such an interpretation from the following two points of view, and, as a result, we want to insist that his theory of judgment has an ontological significance. From the first point of view we consider it in not only "Analytic" but also "Dialectic" of Critique of Pure Reason, and reveal an intimite relationship between the judgment and the idea of reason. Namely, a certain judgment is not independent of other judgments, but consists in the relation to all other and furthermore to the ideal totality. From the second point of view we will turn our attention to the faculty of the reflective judgment in the theory of taste and art of Critique of Judgment and make the judgment stand out as an expression of the vividness and diversity of nature. Our consideration on the reflective judgment in the appreciation or creation of the beauty will throw light over not only the relation between the judgment and the idea, but also the creative side of it. Read more
10.
Grant
Kyushu Univ. Production Kyushu Univ. Production
Cover image of 宗教とモダニティの関係についての総合的研究-世俗化論を超えるために — General Study on Religions and Modernity
竹沢 尚一郎 ; TAKEZAWA Shoichiro
Project Year: 2001-2002
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Abstract: This study focuses on the relations between religious systems and modernity. We have formed a team composed of eight regular researchers and four irregular researchers. Their specialties are so different that we could cover all the important societies through our five workshops organized for two years. This study aimed a comparative one. We began to distinguish three types of modernization process: 1) The most advanced societies like England and France, where the secular and the religious opposed most clearly since the latter half of the nineteenth century. 2) The secondary modernized societies such as German and Japan, where the secular and the religious combined mysteriously to form an amalgam called fascism. 3) The colonized societies like India and Malaysia, which underwent modernization and westernization simultaneously. In some countries, like many African countries, Christianity was accepted to become a primary religion; but in other countries like India and Malaysia, it was totally rejected and the traditional religion is plasticized with more eagerness. It is generally accepted that the modernity is antinomy of religious belief and practices. But this study has demonstrated that the relations betweens these two is more complicated and that problematizing these altogether is very favorable to deepen our understanding of modernity and of religion. This study has also examined the chief notions of religious studies to make them clear: secularization, sacred, ritual, possession, syncretism, nationalistic religion, folk religion, colonialism and religion, politics and religion. Read more

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